Cervical Cancer Screening in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

  • Diama Bhadra ValeEmail author
  • Joana Froes Bragança
  • Luiz Carlos Zeferino


Population-based screening programs have reduced significantly cervical cancer burden in high-income countries over the past few decades. Low- and middle-income countries have failed to show a major impact on cervical cancer control, even in settings where cytology- or visual inspection-based screening activities are ongoing. Widespread use of HPV vaccine is the most promising strategy to avoid disease development. Nevertheless, a vaccine population-based approach is still limited to some settings, and the impact of mass vaccination is not expected for some time. In 2016 the American Society of Clinical Oncology issued a stratified guideline addressing global resources disparities. The goal of this chapter is to debate challenges from low- and middle-income countries to implement successful cervical cancer screening programs in order to reduce cancer burden. The feasibility for introduction of new technologies, like the HPV-DNA-based tests, will be analyzed according to the different scenarios. This intends to be a critical review addressing aspects of organization of screening programs in the view of global disparities.


Cervical cancer HPV vaccine Cervical cancer screening HPV-DNA tests Cervical cancer prevention Cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diama Bhadra Vale
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joana Froes Bragança
    • 1
  • Luiz Carlos Zeferino
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsHospital Dr. José Aristodemo Pinotti, State University of CampinasSao PauloBrazil

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