The VET Project

  • Maria-Carmen Pantea


This chapter defines initial VET as the secondary education preparing young people for level 3 occupations. It describes three main approaches of organizing VET across Europe (cf. Wieland, Local Econ 30(5):577–583, 2015): (i) the liberal, market-based model where the supply and demand of un-standardized training is given by the market (UK, Ireland); (ii) the school-based/bureaucratic/state-regulated model (France) and (iii) the dual-corporatist model, applied in German-speaking countries, which merges school-based regulations with market-based approaches. It is argued that the ‘German dual model’ receives high endorsement in Europe and in Romania as well (where the first initiatives of this kind started to emerge, mainly in Transylvania). The chapter includes background information on the socio-economic context of Romania and its VET project.


Initial vocational education and training Dual model School-based vocational education Market-based model European policy Romania 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria-Carmen Pantea
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Sociology and Social WorkBabeș-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania

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