Advertisement

The VET Project

  • Maria-Carmen Pantea
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter defines initial VET as the secondary education preparing young people for level 3 occupations. It describes three main approaches of organizing VET across Europe (cf. Wieland, Local Econ 30(5):577–583, 2015): (i) the liberal, market-based model where the supply and demand of un-standardized training is given by the market (UK, Ireland); (ii) the school-based/bureaucratic/state-regulated model (France) and (iii) the dual-corporatist model, applied in German-speaking countries, which merges school-based regulations with market-based approaches. It is argued that the ‘German dual model’ receives high endorsement in Europe and in Romania as well (where the first initiatives of this kind started to emerge, mainly in Transylvania). The chapter includes background information on the socio-economic context of Romania and its VET project.

Keywords

Initial vocational education and training Dual model School-based vocational education Market-based model European policy Romania 

References

  1. Andressen, El., & Dalton, H. (2017). Employers as Individuals, Employers as Organisations: The Continued Influence of Employer Behaviours on Policy Success. JVET 2017: Journal of Vocational Education and Training 12th International Conference, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. Billett, S. (2011). Vocational Education. Purposes, Traditions and Prospects. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brandl, H. (2017). Cine sunt tinerii care (nu) se integreaza pe piata muncii. Ziare.com. Retrieved from http://www.ziare.com/locuri-de-munca/piata-muncii/cine-sunt-tinerii-care-nu-se-integreaza-pe-piata-muncii-1487544
  4. Brockmann, M., Clarke, L., & Winch, C. (2008). Knowledge, Skills, Competence: European Divergences in Vocational Education and Training (VET) – The English, German and Dutch Cases. Oxford Review of Education, 34(5), 547–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cedefop. (2008). Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET) in Europe Review. Retrieved from www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/IVET_Review_08.pdf
  6. Cedefop. (2011). Vocational Education and Training Is Good for You the Social Benefits of VET for Individuals (Research paper No 17). Luxembourg: Publications Office. Retrieved from file: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/5517_en.pdf
  7. Cedefop. (2014). Terminology of European Education and Training Policy: A Selection of 130 Key Terms (2nd ed.). Luxembourg: Publications Office. Retrieved from http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/4117_en.pdf
  8. Cort, P. (2010). Stating the Obvious: The European Qualifications Framework Is Not a Neutral Evidence-Based Policy Tool. European Educational Research Journal, 9(3), 304–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dewey, J. (1914). A Policy of Industrial Education. The New Republic, 1, 11–12.Google Scholar
  10. Dewey, J. (1915/1979). Education vs. Trade-Training: Reply to David Snedden. In J. A. Boydston (Ed.), The Middle Works of John Dewey, 1899–1924 (pp. 36–48). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Dewey, J. (1916/1966). Democracy and Education. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Eichhorst, W., Rodríguez-Planas, N., Schmidl, R., & Zimmermann, K. F. (2015). A Road Map to Vocational Education and Training in Industrialized Countries. ILR Review, 68(2), 314–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Euler, D. (2013). Germany’s Dual Vocational Training System: A Model for Other Countries? Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung. Retrieved from https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/fileadmin/files/BSt/Publikationen/GrauePublikationen/GP_Germanys_dual_vocational_training_system.pdf
  14. Euler, D., & Wieland, C. (2015). The German VET System: Exportable Blueprint or Food for Thought? Bertelsmann Stiftung. Retrieved from https://www.dcdualvet.org/wp-content/uploads/2015_Euler_The-German-VET-System_Exportable-Blue-Print-or-Food-for-Thought-1.pdf
  15. European Commission. (2012). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions Rethinking Education: Investing in Skills for Better Socio-Economic Outcomes. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/txt/?uri=celex:52012DC0669
  16. European Commission. (2017a). Press Release. Vocational Education and Training in the European Spotlight: Second European Vocational Skills Week Launched. Retrieved from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-4683_en.htm
  17. European Commission. (2017b). Council Recommendation on the 2017 National Reform Programme of Romania and Delivering a Council Opinion on the 2017 Convergence programme of Romania. Brussels. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX%3A32017H0809%2822%29
  18. Finegold, D. (1991). Institutional Incentives and Skill Creation: Preconditions for a High-Skill Equilibrium. In P. Ryan (Ed.), International Comparisons of Vocational Education and Training for Intermediate Skills (pp. 93–116). Hove: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  19. Gerrard, J. (2014). Radical Childhoods: Schooling and the Struggle for Social Change. Manchester: Manchester University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gonon, P. (2009). ‘Efficiency’ and ‘Vocationalism’ as Structuring Principles of Industrial Education in the USA. Vocations and Learning: Studies in Vocational and Professional Education, 2(2), 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greinhart, W. D. (2005). Vocational Education and Training in Europe: Classical Models of the 19th-Century and Training in England, France and Germany During the First Half of the 20th. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  22. Hagedorn, L. S. (1999). Vocational Education and the Collegiate Ideal: The Threat and the Challenge of Limited Resources. New Directions for Higher Education, 1999(105), 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Handel, M. J. (2005). Worker Skills and Job Requirements Is There a Mismatch? Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  24. Hanf, G. (2002). Introduction. Paper Presented at the Towards a History of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Europe in a Comparative Perspective, Florence.Google Scholar
  25. Harvey, D. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hayo, B., & Seifer, W. (2003). Subjective Economic Well-Being in Eastern Europe. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 329–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kliebard, H. M. (2004). The Struggle for the American Curriculum, 1893–1958 (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lehmann, W., & Taylor, A. (2015). On the Role of Habitus and Field in Apprenticeships. Work, Employment and Society, 29(4), 607–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leney, T., & Green, A. (2005). Achieving the Lisbon goal: The Contribution of Vocational Education and Training. European Journal of Education, 40(3), 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malherbe, E. (1977). Education in South Africa: 1923–1975. Cape Town: Juta & Company.Google Scholar
  31. Masdonati, J. (2010). The Transition from School to Vocational Education and Training: A Theoretical Model and Transition Support Program. Journal of Employment Counseling, 47, 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McGrath, S. (2012a). Vocational Education and Training for Development: A Policy in Need of a Theory? International Journal of Educational Development, 32(5), 623–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McGrath, S. (2012b). Challenging Vocational Education and Training for Development Research Seminar. HAVE Centre for Research in Higher, Adult and Vocational Education, The University of Nottingham. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtTemZbq2yk
  34. Ministry of Education [rom. Ministerul Educației Naționale și Cercetării Stiințifice] and CNDIPT [rom. Centrul Național de Dezvoltare a Învățământului Profesional și Tehnic]. (2016). Opțiunile de educație și formare profesională ale absolvenților de clasa a VIII-a. Document Concept. Retrieved from https://www.edu.ro/sites/default/files/optiuni%20document%20concept.pdf
  35. Musset, P. (2014). OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training a Skills Beyond School Commentary on Romania. OECD Publishing. URL: https://www.oecd.org/countries/romania/ASkillsBeyondSchoolCommentaryOnRomania.pdf
  36. Nielsen, S. P., & Le Steen Hansen, A. (1999). Final Evaluation of RO9405 Phare VET Reform Programme Ministry of National Education Bucharest, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.tvet.ro/Anexe/6.Anexe/PhareRO9405.pdf
  37. Pantazi, R. (2013, November 5). Scoala profesionala – model de business. Hotnews. Retrieved from http://m.hotnews.ro/stire/15962836
  38. Petmesidou, M., & Papatheodorou, C. (2006). Poverty and Social Deprivation in the Mediterranean. Trends, Policies and Welfare Prospects in the New Millennium. Bergen: Zed books.Google Scholar
  39. PIAROM. (2016). Structura forței de muncă din România. Implicații asupra politicilor publice. Retrieved from https://www.piarom.ro/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Prezentare_v3.pdf?x76754
  40. Pilz, M. (2017). Policy Borrowing in Vocational Education and Training (VET) – VET System Typologies and the “6 P Strategy” for Transfer Analysis. In M. Pilz (Ed.), Vocational Education and Training in Times of Economic Crisis. Lessons from Around the World (pp. 473–490). Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Postelnicu, C., & Dabija, D. C. (2017). Delocalization, Corporate Migration, Re-Industrialization and Sustainability – A Case of Romanian Economy. Review of Economic Studies and Research Virgil Madgearu, 10(1), 77–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Powell, L. (2014). Reimagining the Purpose of Vocational Education and Training: The Perspectives of Further Education and Training College Students in South Africa. Thesis submitted to the University of Nottingham for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.Google Scholar
  43. Roberts, K. (2009). Youth in Transition: In Eastern Europe and the West. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Romanian Academy. (2016). Strategia de dezvoltare a Romaniei in urmatorii 20 de ani. Vol. IIII. Bucharest: Editura Academiei Romane. URL: http://www.acad.ro/bdar/strategiaAR/doc13/StrategiaIII.pdf
  45. Sennett, R. (2004). Respect in a World of Inequality. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  46. Thompson, J. F. (1973). Foundations of Vocational Education: Social and Philosophical Concepts. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  47. Wallenborn, M., & Heyneman, S. P. (2009). Should Vocational Education Be Part of Secondary Education? Journal of Educational Change, 10, 405–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ward, M. R. M. (2015). From Labouring to Learning Working-Class Masculinities, Education and De-Industrialization. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  49. West, J. (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Eastern Europe: Transition and Influence. Published by the Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies. Retrieved from http://www.llakes.org
  50. Wieland, C. (2015). Germany’s Dual Vocational-Training System: Possibilities for and Limitations to Transferability. Local Economy, 30(5), 577–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wiemann, J. (2017). Export of German-Style Vocational Education: A Case Study in the Automotive Industry in Puebla, Mexico. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 17(2), 208–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wiemann, J., & Fuchs, M. (2018). The Export of Germany’s “Secret of Success” Dual Technical VET: MNCs and Multiscalar Stakeholders Changing the Skill Formation System in Mexico. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 11(2), 373–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Winch, C. (2013). The Attractiveness of TVET. In UNESCO-UNEVOC (Ed.), Revisiting Global Trends in TVET: Reflections on Theory and Practice (pp. 86–122). Bonn: UNESCO-UNEVOC.Google Scholar
  54. Wolf, A. (2002). Does Education Matter? London: Penguin Books Limited.Google Scholar
  55. Wolf, A. (2011). Review of Vocational Education – The Wolf Report. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/180504/DFE-00031-2011.pdf

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria-Carmen Pantea
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Sociology and Social WorkBabeș-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania

Personalised recommendations