Advertisement

The BRICS Commitment on Climate Change: Process Towards an Effective Approach in the Path of Sustainable Development

  • Marco António Baptista MartinsEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Economics book series (CE)

Abstract

Since 2008, the countries of the group known as the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) have acted as strategic partners with a twofold purpose: to change the architecture of international relations and to rearrange the balance of powers to soft balance world’s largest military power, the United States. Countries that are today classified as ‘growing economies’ are undoubtedly the highest global consumers of energy, emitting polluting agents such as those from natural gas, oil and coal, which are all responsible for the greenhouse effect. The present chapter analyzes and examines whether, within the international context, the BRICS have sought to respect the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) (that is, the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol), and to establish new commitments for the period 2013–2020 under the Paris Agreement (2016). To that end, we note important political and economic aspects of the BRICS that converge—and sometimes diverge—as member countries pursue the climate change agenda, and we look at how these same aspects strengthen the decisions of the different governments of each BRICS. Of note in this examination is the role of the New Development Bank, known as the BRICS Bank, which is recognized as the driving force behind clean energy financing and for its contribution to sustainable development.

Keywords

BRICS Climate change Sustainable development Clean energy Soft balance 

References

  1. Ivanov, I. S. (2002). The new Russian diplomacy (pp. 141–182). Washington, DC: The Nixon Center, Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  2. Käkönen, J. (2013). BRICS as a new constellation in international relations? IAMCR 2013 Conference Dublin, 25–29 June 2013. http://www.uta.fi/cmt/tutkimus/BRICS/materials/BRICS%20as%20a%20New%20Constellation%20in%20International%20Relations51.pdf
  3. Khilnani, S., Kumar, R., Bhanu Mehta, P., Menon, P., Nilekani, N., Saran, S., et al. (2012). Nonalignment 2.0. A foreign and strategic policy for India in the twenty first century. New Delhi: National Defence College and Centre for Policy Research.Google Scholar
  4. Langenhove, L. V., Zwartjes, M., & Papanagnou, G. (2016). Conceptualising regional leadership: The positioning theory angle. In S. Kingah & C. Quiliconi (Eds.), Global and regional leadership of BRICS countries (pp. 13–27). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lavrov, S. (2012). BRICS: A new generation forum with a global reach. Moscow: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  6. Martins, M. A. (2015). The BRICS in the global order: A new political agenda? In M. Rewizorski (Ed.), The European Union and the BRICS (pp. 27–37). Switzerland: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19099-0-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. O’Neill, J. (2013). The BRIC road to growth (perspectives). London: Publishing Partnership.Google Scholar
  8. O’Neill, J. (2007). BRICs and beyond. New York, NY: Goldman Sachs Group.Google Scholar
  9. O’Neill, J. (2006). The world and the BRICs dream (pp. 37–54). New York, NY: Goldman Sachs Group.Google Scholar
  10. Quiliconi, C., & Kingah, S. (2016). Conclusions: Leadership of the BRICS and implications for the European Union. In S. Kingah & C. Quiliconi (Eds.), Global and regional leadership of BRICS countries (pp. 243–253). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Soko, M., & Balchin, N. (2016). South Africa’s quest for leadership in Africa: Achievements, constraints and dilemmas. In S. Kingah & C. Quiliconi (Eds.), Global and regional leadership of BRICS countries (pp. 225–242). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International RelationsEvora University, CICPEvoraPortugal

Personalised recommendations