Advertisement

Madeira Island: Tourism, Natural Disasters and Destination Image

  • António Manuel Martins de AlmeidaEmail author
  • Luiz Pinto Machado
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Economics book series (CE)

Abstract

There is no doubt that globalization and technology have in recent years been responsible for the economic and social progress of the four corners of the world. Tourism has also been “affected” by these phenomena and is generally referred to as the greatest expression of globalization. Today, the business volume of tourism equals or even surpasses that of oil exports, food products or automobiles. Tourism has become one of the major players in international commerce and represents at the same time one of the main income sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an increasing diversification and competition among destinations (UNWTO). In the service area, tourism distinguishes itself as the main industry for technological use and innovation. But as tourism grows, climate risks increase. Storms, hurricanes, torrents of water, earthquakes and general natural disasters arrive without warning!

Last decade can be remembered for the multiplicity of negative events including natural disasters, terrorist attacks and bird flu that have severely impacted tourist destinations. Whether the incidence of disasters or crises, both natural and man-made, is increasing, people have become more concerned about their safety, particularly when they decide to go travelling (Machado and Almeida, Natural disasters: Prevention, risk factors and management. Nova Science Publishers, 2012). The Atlantic islands, fragile by nature, have been plagued in recent decades by relatively frequent events, leaving tracks of destruction and extremely damaging image of fate.

Madeira Island was no exception; after the storm of 2010, which left marks still visible today, the island once again suffered a fire of unprecedented dimensions in August 2016, terrorizing the population and tourists who quickly helped spread the news around the world. The strong winds and very high temperatures far above normal pushed the flames to the city, populated by old buildings and badly treated pieces of land that worked as a fuse to make the city a hell of flames. The initial under-assessment of risk and clear lack of preparation for such events helped, and chaos settled for several days. The economic impact of the fires, the damage to the local entrepreneurs and the recovery of the destination image are something that can take years to recover. This chapter intends to deepen the damage caused to the island tourism sector while suggesting some actions that can minimize the effect of a similar crisis in events that seem to arise more and more frequently!

Keywords

Safety and security crisis Crisis in Atlantic islands Managing crisis Place image 

References

  1. Avraham, E. (2013). Battling stereotypes of terror and wars: Media strategies for marketing tourism to Middle Eastern countries. American Behavioral Scientist, 57, 1350–1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avraham, E. (2014). Spinning liabilities into assets in place marketing: Towards a new typology. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 10(3), 174–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avraham, E. (2015). Destination image repair during crisis: Attracting tourism during the Arab Spring uprisings. Tourism Management, 47, 224–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avraham, E. (2016). Destination marketing and image repair during tourism crises: The case of Egypt. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 28, 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avraham, E., & Ketter, E. (2008). Media strategies for marketing places in crises: Improving the image of cities, countries, and tourist destinations. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  6. Avraham, E., & Ketter, E. (2016). Marketing tourism for developing countries: Battling stereotypes and crises in Asia, Africa and the Middle East. London: Palgrave-Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baloglu, S., & Brinberg, D. (1997). Affective images of tourism destination. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baloglu, S., & Mangaloglu, M. (2001). Tourism destination images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as perceived by US-based tour operators and travel agents. Tourism Management, 22(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. (1999a). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(4), 11–15.Google Scholar
  10. Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. (1999b). US international pleasure travellers’ images of four Mediterranean destinations: A comparison of visitors and nonvisitors. Journal of Travel Research, 38(2), 114–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beattie, M. (1992). The effect of natural disasters on tourism a study of Mount Saint Helens and Yellowstone National Park. Master thesis. http://scholarworks.rit.edu/theses/7428/
  12. Beerli, A., & Martín, J. (2004). Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: A quantitative analysis – A case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25, 623–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benoit, W. (1997). Image repair discourse and crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 177–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benoit, W. (2015). Accounts, excuses and apologies: Image repair theory and research. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bigné, E., Sánchez, M., & Sánchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behaviour: Inter-relationship. Tourism Management, 22, 607–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonn, M., Joseph, S., & Dai, M. (2005). International versus domestic visitors: An examination of destination image perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 294–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coles, T. (2003). A local reading of a global disaster: Some lessons on tourism management from an Annus Horribilis in South West England. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 15(2/3), 173–197.Google Scholar
  18. Cooper, A., & Momani, B. (2009). The challenge of re-branding progressive countries in the Gulf and Middle East: Opportunities through new networked engagements versus constraints of embedded negative images. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5(2), 103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crompton, J. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Echtner, C., & Ritchie, J. (1991). The measuring and measurement of destination image. The Journal of Tourism Studies, 2(2), 2–12.Google Scholar
  21. EM-DAT CRED. (2012). EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED international disaster database. Brussels: Universit’e Catholique de Louvain. www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/12/715/2012/
  22. Fragoso, M., Trigo, R., Pinto, J., Lopes, S., Lopes, A., Ulbrich, S., et al. (2012). The 20 February 2010 Madeira flash-floods: Synoptic analysis and extreme rainfall assessment. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 715–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Henderson, J. (2007). Tourism crises: Causes, consequences and management. Oxford: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huang, J., & Min, J. (2002). Earthquake devastation and recovery in tourism: The Taiwan case. Tourism Management, 23, 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ismeri, E. (2011). Growth factors in the outermost regions, Final report Vol. II, European CommissionGoogle Scholar
  26. Itzhaky, H., Kissil, K., & Weiss-Dagan, S. (2016). International tourists’ reactions to a natural disaster: Experiences of the 2015 earthquake in Nepal among Israeli travelers. Journal of Trauma Stress, 29(6), 522–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jiang, Y., & Ritchie, B. (2017). Disaster collaboration in tourism: Motives, impediments and success factors. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, 70–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kwok, A., & Chew, E. (2017). The valley of dry bones: A city’s revival for tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 66, 183–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lawson, F., & Baud Bovy, M. (1977). Tourism and recreational development. London: Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  30. Letho, X., Douglas, A., & Park, J. (2010). Mediating effects of natural disasters on travel intention. In N. Scott, E. Laws, & B. Prideaux (Eds.), Safety and security in tourism: Recovery marketing after crises. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Lin, C.-H., Duarte, B., Kerstetter, D., & Hou, J.-S. (2007). Examining the role of cognitive and affective image in predicting choice across natural, developed, and theme-park destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Machado, L. P., & Almeida A. (2012). Natural disasters in touristic destinations: The case of Portuguese Islands. In B. Raskovic & S. Mrdja (Eds.), Natural disasters: Prevention, risk factors and management. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. (Chapter ID: _9303_ 2012).Google Scholar
  33. Mair, J., Ritchie, B., & Walters, G. (2014). Towards a research agenda for postdisaster and post-crisis recovery strategies for tourist destinations: A narrative review. Current Issues in Tourism, 1–26.Google Scholar
  34. Manheim, J., & Albritton, R. (1984). Changing national images: International public relations and media agenda setting. American Political Science Review, 78, 641–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mansfeld, Y., & Winckler, O. (2015). Can this be spring? Assessing the impact of the “Arab Spring” on the Arab tourism industry. Tourism: znanstveno-strucni casopis, 63(2), 205–223.Google Scholar
  36. Mazursky, D., & Jacoby, J. (1986). Exploring the development of store images. Journal of Retailing, 62(2), 145–165.Google Scholar
  37. McClure, K. (2012). Media coverage of natural disasters: Pentadic cartography and the case of the 1993 great flood of the Mississippi. The Journal of the Kenneth Burke Society – KB Journal, 8(1, Spring 2012 Special Issue), 7.Google Scholar
  38. Miller, S., Gonzalez, C., & Hutter, M. (2017). Phoenix tourism within dark tourism: Rebirth, rebuilding and rebranding of tourist destinations following disasters. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 9(2), 196–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moutinho, L. (1987). Consumer behaviour in tourism. European Journal of Marketing, 21(10), 5–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Obasi, B., & Frangialli, F. (1998). Preface. In World Tourism Organization & World Meteorological Organization (Eds.), Handbook on natural disaster reduction in tourist areas. Madrid: WTO.Google Scholar
  41. Okuyama, T. (2018). Analysis of optimal timing of tourism demand recovery policies from natural disaster using the contingent behavior method. Tourism Management, 64, 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Orchiston, C. (2012). Seismic risk scenario planning and sustainable tourism management: Christchurch and the Alpine Fault zone, South Island, New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20, 59–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paraskevas, A., & Arendell, B. (2007). A strategic framework for terrorism prevention and mitigation in tourism destinations. Tourism Management, 28(6), 1560–1573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prideaux, B. (2003). The need to use disaster planning frameworks to respond to major tourism disasters: Analysis of Australia’s Response to Tourism Disasters in 2001. Journal of Travel Tourism Market, 15(4), 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Prideaux, B., Laws, E., & Faulkner, B. (2003). Events in Indonesia: Exploring the limits to formal tourism trends forecasting methods in complex crisis situations. Tourism Management, 24(4), 475–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Quintal, R. (1999). Aluviões da Madeira. Séculos XIX e XX. Territorium, Revista de Geografia Física aplicada ao Ordenamento do Território e Gestão de Riscos Naturais, 6, 31–48.Google Scholar
  47. Ritchie, B. (2008). Tourism disaster planning and management: From response and recovery to reduction and readiness. Current Issues in Tourism, 11, 315–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rodrigues, D., & Ayala-Carcedo, F. (2003). Rain-induced landslides and debris flows in Madeira Island. Landslide News, Journal of the Japan Landslide Society, 14, 43–45.Google Scholar
  49. Ryan, C., & Cove, J. (2007). Structuring destination image: A qualitative approach. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2), 143–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Santana, G. (2003). Crisis management and tourism: Beyond the rhetoric. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 15, 299–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sharpley, R. (2005). The Tsunami and tourism: A comment. Current Issues in Tourism, 8, 344–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. SRES (2010), Estudo de Avaliacão do Risco de Aluviões da Ilha da Madeira – Relatório S’ıntese. Instituto Superior Técnico, a Universidade da Madeira e o Laboratório Regional de Engenharia Civil.Google Scholar
  53. Stern, E., & Krakover, S. (1993). The formation of a composite urban image. Geographical Analysis, 25(2), 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. The Telegraph. (2010). Madeira floods: Tourists urged not to cancel holidays, from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/portugal/7301442/Madeira-floods-tourists-urged-not-to-cancel-holidays.html
  55. Tsai, C., & Chen, C. (2010). An earthquake disaster management mechanism based on risk assessment information for the tourism industry – A case study from the island of Taiwan. Tourism Management, 31(4), 470–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tucker, H. (2016, March). Empathy and tourism: Limits and possibilities. Annals of Tourism Research, 57, 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Walmsley, D., & Young, M. (1998). Evaluative images and tourism: The use of perceptual constructs to describe the structure of destination images. Journal of Travel Research, 36(3), 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Walters, G., & Mair, J. (2012). The effectiveness of post-disaster recovery marketing messages—The case of the 2009 Australian bushfires. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(1), 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yang, W., Wang, D., & Chen, G. (2011). Reconstruction strategies after the Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan, China. Tourism Management, 32, 949–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • António Manuel Martins de Almeida
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luiz Pinto Machado
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidade da MadeiraFunchalPortugal
  2. 2.CEFAGE Center for Advanced Studies in Management and Economics, Universidade de ÈvoraÈvoraPortugal

Personalised recommendations