• Peter Natesan Pushparaj


Metabolomics is a robust and comprehensive investigation of metabolites, generated from the substrates and products of metabolism, within cells, tissues, organisms, and biological fluids. Metabolomics helps to get a panoramic view of an array of metabolites that are implicated in diverse and intricate cellular, molecular, and physiological processes in living systems. More importance has been ascribed to the metabolomics-related research in academia, industry, and government bodies worldwide. It is clearly evident by just two publications in the year 2000 to nearly 27,000 documents till the year 2018 in metabolomics research. Investigating the metabolome is necessary for understanding any subtle changes in metabolites and the subsequent impact on molecular networks or pathways in health and disease states. The rapid emergence of “systems biology” helps to integrate the massive wealth of data derived from these “multi-omics” platforms with metabolomics approach to further interpret or characterize the complex biological processes since the metabolomics is an integral and pivotal part of the central dogma (CD) of molecular biology and characterizes the molecular phenotype. In this chapter, I will discuss the analytical methods in metabolomics such as mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), coupled or hyphenated techniques with liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC) and capillary electrophoresis (LC-MS, GC-MS, CE-NMR, MS-NMR, etc.), experimental pipeline, univariate and multivariate analysis, data visualization strategies, metabolomics databases, pathway analysis servers, and potential applications in health and disease.


Metabolomics Central dogma Systems biology Mass spectrometry Nuclear magnetic resonance Liquid chromatography Gas chromatography Hyphenated techniques Health and disease 



Central Dogma


Capillary Electrophoresis


Chronic Pancreatitis


Electron Impact Ionization


Electrospray Ionization


Gas Chromatography


Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes


Liquid Chromatography


Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization


Mass Spectrometry


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy


Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis


Principal Component Analysis


Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma


Quadrupole Time of Flight


Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry



This work is funded by the National Plan for Science, Technology, and Innovation (MAARIFAH), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, award number 12-BIO2267-03. The author also acknowledges with thanks the Science and Technology Unit (STU), King Abdulaziz University, for their excellent technical support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Natesan Pushparaj
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, Faculty of Applied Medical SciencesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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