An integrated circuit (IC) consists of a set of electronic circuits on a small chip of semiconductor material, and it is much smaller than a circuit made out of independent components. The IC is made on a small plate of semiconductor material that is usually made of silicon. It is extremely compact and may contain billions of transistors and other electronic components in a tiny area. The width of each conducting line has got smaller and smaller due to advances in technology over the years, and it is now measured in tens of nanometers. The invention of the integrated circuit led to major reductions in the size and cost of making electronics.
- Moore G (1965) Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Electronics Magazine 38:8–114Google Scholar