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The NG2 Proteoglycan in Pericyte Biology

  • William B. Stallcup
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1109)

Abstract

Studies of pericytes have been retarded by the lack of appropriate markers for identification of these perivascular mural cells. Use of antibodies against the NG2 proteoglycan as a pericyte marker has greatly facilitated recent studies of pericytes, emphasizing the intimate spatial relationship between pericytes and endothelial cells, allowing more accurate quantification of pericyte/endothelial cell ratios in different vascular beds, and revealing the participation of pericytes throughout all stages of blood vessel formation. The functional importance of NG2 in pericyte biology has been established via NG2 knockdown (in vitro) and knockout (in vivo) strategies that reveal significant deficits in blood vessel formation when NG2 is absent from pericytes. NG2 influences pericyte proliferation and motility by acting as an auxiliary receptor that enhances signaling through integrins and receptor tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors. By acting in a trans orientation, NG2 also activates integrin signaling in closely apposed endothelial cells, leading to enhanced maturation and formation of endothelial cell junctions. NG2 null mice exhibit reduced growth of both mammary and brain tumors that can be traced to deficits in tumor vascularization. Use of Cre-Lox technology to produce pericyte-specific NG2 null mice has revealed specific deficits in tumor vessels that include decreased pericyte ensheathment of endothelial cells, diminished assembly of the vascular basement membrane, reduced vessel patency, and increased vessel leakiness. Interestingly, myeloid-specific NG2 null mice exhibit even larger deficits in tumor vascularization, leading to correspondingly slower tumor growth. Myeloid-specific NG2 null mice are deficient in their ability to recruit macrophages to tumors and other sites of inflammation. This absence of macrophages deprives pericytes of a signal that is crucial for their ability to interact with endothelial cells. The interplay between pericytes, endothelial cells, and macrophages promises to be an extremely fertile area of future study.

Keywords

NG2 proteoglycan Blood vessel development Pericytes Endothelial cells Vascular basement membrane Cell proliferation and motility Integrin signaling Growth factor receptor signaling NG2 knockdown NG2 ablation Cre-Lox technology Tumor growth Tumor vascularization Macrophage recruitment 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Immunology Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery InstituteLa JollaUSA

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