Advertisement

A Path Forward for Jobs Creation

  • Abraham Unger
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter proposes detailed policies to close the income gap in America and revitalize the middle class. It focuses on what is doable in American politics right now and offers real world solutions to this seemingly intractable problem. It includes innovative ideas that stress the roles of both the private and public sectors, without neglecting the social implications of American middle class decline and rebirth.

Keywords

Policy Family Jobs Regulation Middle class Taxes Investment Housing 

References

  1. Austin, B., Glaeser, E., & Summers, L. H. (2018). Saving the heartland: Place-based policies in 21st century America. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/3_austinetal.pdf
  2. Benner, C. (2018). Building a real sharing economy: Socializing the wealth produced by social knowledge. Berkeley: Haas Institute Research Report. Retrieved from https://haasinstitute.berkeley.edu/building-real-sharing-economy
  3. Benner, C., & Pugh, J. (2016). An introduction to Universal Basic Income. Berkeley, CA: Universal Income Project, Haas Institute. Retrieved from http://haasinstitute.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/pugh_benner_basic_income_combined-v2.pdf
  4. Berube, A. (2017). Want to help the working class? Pay the EITC differently. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2017/06/28/want-to-help-the-working-class-pay-the-eitc-differently/
  5. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (2018). How we work: Strategic investment fund. Retrieved from https://www.gatesfoundation.org/How-We-Work/Quick-Links/Strategic-Investment-Fund
  6. Caines, R. (2017). 5 ways the EITC benefits families, communities, and the country. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved from https://www.cbpp.org/blog/5-ways-the-eitc-benefits-families-communities-and-the-country
  7. Callahan, D. (2017). When the Ford Foundation leads, do others follow? Inside Philanthropy. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamdunkelberg/2017/04/04/the-insidious-cost-of-regulation/#fa175bf5c7b4
  8. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2018). Policy basics: The earned income tax credit. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved from https://www.cbpp.org/research/federal-tax/policy-basics-the-earned-income-tax-credit
  9. Clark, C., Plachowski, T. J., Singh, R. Smith, A., & Walls, T. (2017). Policy by, with, and for all students: How to make public education work. Brown Center Chalkboard. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/04/28/policy-by-with-and-for-all-students-how-to-make-public-education-work/
  10. Crane, R. (2018, July 9). This California town will give a $500 stipend to residents. Atlanta: CNN Tech. Retrieved from https://money.cnn.com/2018/07/09/technology/stockton-california-basic-income-experiment/index.html
  11. Davey, J. D. (2012). The shrinking American middle class: The social and cultural implications of growing inequality. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Blasio, B. (2014). Housing New York: A five- borough ten- year plan. New York: The City of New York. Retrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/html/housing/assets/downloads/pdf/housing_plan.pdf
  13. Dunkelberg, W. (2017). The insidious cost of regulation. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamdunkelberg/2017/04/04/the-insidious-cost-of-regulation/#fa175bf5c7b4
  14. Edwards, C., & de Rugy, V. (2015). Earned income tax credit: Small benefits, large costs. Tax and Budget Bulletin, No. 73. Washington, DC: The Cato Institute. Retrieved from https://www.cato.org/publications/tax-budget-bulletin/earned-income-tax-credit-small-benefits-large-costs
  15. Fleener, J. (2016). Addressing educations’ [sic] most intractable problems: A case of failing schools. Emergence: Complexity and Organization. Last modified 5 Aug 2017. Edition 1. https://doi.org/10.emerg/10.17357.e0b582abc618906c0d995c2557c77bc3
  16. Ford Foundation. (2018). Financial investments. Retrieved from https://www.fordfoundation.org/work/mission-investments/financial-investments/
  17. Foundation Center. (2014). Key facts: U.S. Foundations. New York: Foundation Center. Retrieved from http://foundationcenter.org/gainknowledge/research/keyfacts2014/pdfs/Key_Facts_on_US_Foundations_2014.pdf
  18. Furman, J., Russ, K., & Shambaugh, J. (2017, January 12). U.S. tariffs are an arbitrary and regressive tax. VOX CEPR Policy Portal. Retrieved from https://voxeu.org/article/us-tariffs-are-arbitrary-and-regressive-tax
  19. Hallen, J. (2018, August 10). How the right can make inequality a winning issue. National Review. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamdunkelberg/2017/04/04/the-insidious-cost-of-regulation/#fa175bf5c7b4
  20. Haskins, R., & Greenberg, M. (2006, March). Welfare reform: Success or failure? Policy and Practice, 10–12. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/0315welfare_haskins.pdf
  21. Hodson, R. (2001). Dignity at work. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holland, R. (2018, July 2). Corporate tax cuts don’t increase middle class incomes. Research and Ideas. Working Knowledge: Business Research for Business Leaders, Harvard Business School. Retrieved from https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/corporate-tax-cuts-don-t-increase-middle-class-incomes
  23. Hoynes, H., Page, M., & Stevens, A. (2006). Poverty in America: Trends and explanations. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(1), 47–68. Retrieved from https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/089533006776526102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jones, J., & Zipperer, N. (2018). Unfulfilled promises: Amazon fulfillment centers do not generate broad-based employment growth. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://www.epi.org/publication/unfulfilled-promises-amazon-warehouses-do-not-generate-broad-based-employment-growth/
  25. Kantor, P., & Savitch, H. V. (2002). Cities in the international marketplace. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kitroeff, N. (2017, October 22). Where internet orders mean real jobs, and new life for communities. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/22/business/economy/warehouse-jobs.html
  27. Kolodner, M. (2015, May 5). Why are graduation rates at Community Colleges so low? New York: The Hechinger Report. Retrieved from https://hechingerreport.org/new-book-addresses-low-community-college-graduation-rates/
  28. Morris, C. (2017, August 3). Amazon’s ‘jobs day’ was a bust. Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2017/08/03/amazon-jobs-day-a-bust/
  29. Mulhere, K. (2015, February 25). The admissions challenges facing private colleges. Inside Higher Ed.Google Scholar
  30. Nallareddy, S., Rouen, E., & Serrato, J. C. S. (2018). Corporate tax cuts increase income inequality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School. Retrieved from https://www.epi.org/publication/unfulfilled-promises-amazon-warehouses-do-not-generate-broad-based-employment-growth/
  31. National Association of Manufacturers. (2014). The cost of federal regulation to the U.S. economy, manufacturing and small business (executive summary). Greenbelt: National Association of Manufactures. Retrieved from http://www.nam.org/Data-and-Reports/Cost-of-Federal-Regulations/Federal-Regulation-Executive-Summary.pdf
  32. Ocasio-Cortez, A. (2018). Platform: Higher education/trade school for all. Retrieved from https://ocasio2018.com/issues
  33. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2009). Aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) and temporary assistance to needy families (TANF). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://aspe.hhs.gov/aid-families-dependent-children-afdc-and-temporary-assistance-needy-families-tanf-overview-0
  34. Pew Research Center. (2015). The American middle class is losing ground. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/12/09/the-american-middle-class-is-losing-ground/
  35. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, an imprint of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Reeves, R. V. (2017). Dream hoarders: How the American upper middle class is leaving everyone else in the dust, why that is a problem, and what to do about it. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  37. Rothman, L. (2016, August 19). Why Bill Clinton signed the Welfare Reform bill, as explained in 1996. Time. Retrieved from http://time.com/4446348/welfare-reform-20-years/
  38. Samuel, L. R. (2014). The American middle class: A cultural history. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Sanders, B. (2016). It’s time to make college tuition free and debt free. Retrieved from https://berniesanders.com/issues/its-time-to-make-college-tuition-free-and-debt-free/
  40. Schwartz, N. D. (2018, August 12). Cold hearts on the furnace line. The New York Times, pp. B1–B6.Google Scholar
  41. Sitamaran, G. (2017). The crisis of the middle-class constitution. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  42. Smil, V. (2013). The rise and retreat of American manufacturing. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  43. Tax Policy Center. (2016). Key elements of the U.S. tax system. Washington, DC: Urban Institute & Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.taxpolicycenter.org/briefing-book/what-earned-income-tax-credit-eitc
  44. The Economist. (2006). Helping the poor: From welfare to workfare. The Economist. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/united-states/2006/07/27/from-welfare-to-workfare
  45. Thompson, D. (2013, September 5). College enrollment plummeted in 2012, but for very good reasons. The economy is getting better. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/09/college-enrollment-plummeted-in-2012-but-for-very-good-reasons/279389/
  46. U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). Educational attainment in the United States: 2016. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2016/demo/education-attainment/cps-detailed-tables.html
  47. Walzer, M. (2011). Achieving global and local justice. Dissent, 58(3), 42–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wilcox, W. B., Lerman, R. I., & Price, J. (2015). Strong families, prosperous states: Do healthy families affect the wealth of states? Washington, DC: The American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
  49. Wilcox, W. B., & Wang, W. (2017). The marriage divide: How and why working-class families are more fragile today. Washington, DC: The American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved from http://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/The-Marriage-Divide.pdf
  50. Winkler, E. (2017, September 25). ‘Snob zoning’ is racial housing segregation by another name. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2017/09/25/snob-zoning-is-racial-housing-segregation-by-another-name/?utm_term=.1630bed9da2f
  51. Wong, A. (2016, January 11). Where are all the high-school grads going? The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/01/where-are-all-the-high-school-grads-going/423285/
  52. Zwick, E. (2017). How to create middle class jobs. Sixteen top academics offer ideas for bringing back opportunity. Chicago Booth Review. Retrieved from http://review.chicagobooth.edu/economics/2017/article/how-create-middle-class-jobs

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham Unger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Government and PoliticsWagner CollegeStaten IslandUSA

Personalised recommendations