The Roots of Vulnerability

  • Ariel E. Lugo
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Energy book series (BRIEFSENERGY)


Twenty-one vulnerabilities to the passage of hurricane María of different sectors and activities of the Puerto Rican economy are analyzed and their causes and effects discussed. This analysis shed light on the potential roots of the problems uncovered by the passage of María. The history of debt of the Commonwealth suggests that financial decisions made decades before the passage of María led to the collapse of infrastructure after the hurricane event. Out of control capitalism, unacceptable behavior in professional and governmental elites, and the bypassing of Constitutional controls on burrowing resulted in a level of corruption that exacerbated the biophysical effects of María on Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, the same forces that collapsed the economy and exacerbated the effects of María are at work in the recovery from both extreme events.

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariel E. Lugo
    • 1
  1. 1.San JuanPuerto Rico

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