Nanotechnology Explored for Water Purification

  • A. Laha
  • D. Biswas
  • S. Basak
Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)


Demand of the fresh water is increasing exponentially for drinking as well as for the industrial use. The main reasons behind this are population growth in worldwide, climate change, and industrial revolution. Hence there is a real demand of novel and innovative water purification technology for drinking water supply as well as to fulfil the industry requirement. Scientists and the researchers of the concerned field are giving their effort to develop water purification technology that would be sustainable, robust, energy-efficient and cost-effective. They have developed nanotechnology-based water purification using nano-silica-silver composite material based on nonwovens. In addition, they are also using this composite membrane of nonwovens and nanofibre for the pre-filtration as antifouling, antimicrobial and as a dye adsorptive material. Apart from the filtration, most of the industries (especially chemical and textile industries) liberated toxic water as effluent which is very much harmful for the living beings as well as for ecosystems.

Effluent water has lost its physical, chemical and biological properties due to mixing with some other contaminants like dyes, heavy metals, pathogens, other inorganic and organic materials, etc. Nanomaterials like metal oxide, metal nanoparticles, zeolite, etc. have already been explored effectively in the field of waste water purification due to its lower size, high surface area and size-dependent properties. Desalination of water is an emerging field in the water purification. Different nanostructured materials like nanoporous single layer graphene, etc. have been used by the researchers for the conversion of the seawater to the fresh water. Portable water is also very much useful as a carrying material in the boat, plane, and the other disaster areas. Nano tech water bottle (nanoscale holes present in the bottle filter) and nanostructured disinfectant can solve the problem in this regard. Nanosized membrane (10–20 nm) which is 3000 times finer than the human hair can efficiently filter and purify the water. Nanotechnology is also very much useful in the field of intelligent irrigation sector (water availability, water delivery, water flow monitoring, etc.) of the agriculture, which requires normally more than 70% of the fresh water. Because of the increased surface area, high reactivity, absorption power and the high strength by weight ratio of the nanomaterials it can create metal-free catalysts for water purification and the nanocomposite can easily be useful for making stronger, lighter pipes used in the agriculture field.


Nanotechnology Water Purification Filtration Desalination 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Laha
    • 1
  • D. Biswas
    • 2
  • S. Basak
    • 3
  1. 1.Reliance Industry Ltd.Navi MumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Indian Jute Industries Research AssociationKolkataIndia
  3. 3.Indian Council of Agricultural ResearchCentral Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT)MumbaiIndia

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