Advertisement

Nanotechnology: An Innovative Way for Wastewater Treatment and Purification

  • Muhammad RafiqueEmail author
  • Muhammad Bilal Tahir
  • Iqra Sadaf
Chapter
Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)

Abstract

In this modern era, nanotechnology is offering great potential for the treatment of wastewater in an extraordinary way as compared to the commercial methods. Traditional wastewater treatments involve high costs and deal with heavy metals. Use of nanomaterials for cleaning wastewater is a recent approach. On the contrary, use of various novel nanomaterials synthesized in-situ for the treatment of wastewater reduced with different pollutants, such as organic and inorganic content, toxic heavy metal ions have been exemplified, due to their unique activity towards contaminants. The fields of nano-biotechnology and nanotechnology are under active research for the application of wastewater treatment. Nanoparticles consist of many strategies such as ultrafiltration membrane, osmosis, sorption, nano-filtration degradation, advanced oxidation process and water remediation as well as disinfection through nanomaterials. In wastewater, the eliminating contaminant concentration efficiency of nanoparticles is dependent upon the physical and chemical characteristics of nanomaterial, the contaminant, and wastewater. Actually various nanoparticles channel with nanofibers, and carbon nanotubes are one of the developing items which are used as a part of nanotechnology.

Keywords

Pollution Wastewater Purification Conventional methods Nanotechnology 

References

  1. Aziz N, Faraz M, Pandey R, Sakir M, Fatma T, Varma A, Barman I, Prasad R (2015) Facile algae-derived route to biogenic silver nanoparticles: synthesis, antibacterial and photocatalytic properties. Langmuir 31:11605–11612.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b03081CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Black M, Sutila T (1994) Mega-slums: the coming sanitary crisis: a WaterAid report. WaterAid, London, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  3. Bowen WR, Welfoot JS (2002) Modelling the performance of membrane nanofiltration—critical assessment and model development. Chem Eng Sci 57:1121–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhuyan T, Mishra K, Khanuja M, Prasad R, Varma A (2015) Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from Azadirachta indica for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications. Mater Sci Semicond Process 32:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burns V (2014) The ABCs of point source versus nonpoint source pollution, what’s the difference? https://savelakewinnipeg.org/2014/04/21/the-abcs-of-point-source-versus-nonpoint-source-pollution-whats-the-difference/
  6. Cadotte J, Forester R, Kim M, Petersen R, Stocker T (1988) Nanofiltration membranes broaden the use of membrane separation technology. Desalination 70:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen T, Xu Y, Peng Z, Li A, Liu J (2017) Simultaneous enhancement of bioactivity and stability of laccase by Cu2+/PAA/PPEGA matrix for efficient biosensing and recyclable decontamination of pyrocatechol. Anal Chem 89:2065–2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng M, Zeng G, Huang D, Lai C, Xu P, Zhang C, Liu Y (2016) Hydroxyl radicals based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for remediation of soils contaminated with organic compounds: a review. Chem Eng J 284:582–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark RB, Frid C, Attrill M (1989) Marine pollution, 4th edn. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 0–12Google Scholar
  10. Day DG (1996) How Australian social policy neglects water environments. Aust J Soil Water Conserv 9:3–9Google Scholar
  11. Dhote J, Ingole S, Chavhan A (2012) Review on waste water treatment technologies. Int J Eng 1:1–10Google Scholar
  12. UNDo Economic (2007) Indicators of sustainable development: guidelines and methodologies, 3rd edn. United Nations Publications, New York, pp 1–398Google Scholar
  13. Egerton TA (2014) UV-absorption-the primary process in photocatalysis and some practical consequences. Molecules 19:18192–18214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fytili D, Zabaniotou A (2008) Utilization of sewage sludge in EU application of old and new methods-a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 12:116–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goel PK (2006) Water pollution: causes, effects and control. New Age International, New Delhi, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  16. Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2004) A review of imperative technologies for wastewater treatment II: hybrid methods. Adv Environ Res 8:553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gorelick SM, Evans B, Remson I (1983) Identifying sources of groundwater pollution: an optimization approach. Water Resour Res 19:779–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gozalvez J, Lora J, Mendoza J, Sancho M (2002) Modelling of a low-pressure reverse osmosis system with concentrate recirculation to obtain high recovery levels. Desalination 144:341–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greenlee LF, Lawler DF, Freeman BD, Marrot BD, Moulin P (2009) Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today’s challenges. Water Res 43:2317–2348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Agarwal S (2012) Chemical treatment technologies for waste-water recycling an overview. RSC Adv 2:6380–6388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kanu I, Achi O (2011) Industrial effluents and their impact on water quality of receiving rivers in Nigeria. J Appl Technol Environ Sani 1:75–86Google Scholar
  22. Kudo A, Miseki Y (2009) Heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting. Chem Soc Rev 38:253–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu Z, Bai H, Lee J, Sun DD (2011) A low-energy forward osmosis process to produce drinking water. Energy Environ Sci 4(7):2582–2585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ma J, Ding Z, Wei G, Zhao H, Huang T (2009) Sources of water pollution and evolution of water quality in the Wuwei basin of Shiyang river, Northwest China. J Environ Manag 90(2):1168–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mahadik S (2017) Applications of nanotechnology in water and waste water treatment. J Manag Technol 7:187–191Google Scholar
  26. Mance G (2012) Pollution threat of heavy metals in aquatic environments. Springer Science & Business Media, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  27. Mart L (1979) Prevention of contamination and other accuracy risks in voltammetric trace metal analysis of natural waters. Fresenius' Z Anal Chem 296:350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Martínez F, Calleja G, Melero JA, Molina R (2005) Heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic aqueous solutions over iron-containing SBA-15 catalyst. Appl Catal B 60:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nadziakiewicz J, Wacławiak K, Stelmach S (2007) Thermal processes for waste treatment. The Silesian University of Technology, GliwiceGoogle Scholar
  30. Nassar AM, Hajjaj K (2013) Purification of stormwater using sand filter. J Water Res Protect 5:1007–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nguyen VH, Wu JC (2018) Recent developments in the design of photoreactors for solar energy conversion from water splitting and CO2 reduction. Appl Catal A 550:122–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ni M, Leung MK, Leung DY, Sumathy K (2007) A review and recent developments in photocatalytic water-splitting using TiO2 for hydrogen production. Renew Sust Energ Rev 11:401–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ødegaard (1992) PROZONE. Cooling towers application ozone + AOP for cooling towers. http://www.prozoneint.com/industrial/cooling-towers-application/
  34. Savage N, Diallo MS (2005) Nanomaterials and water purification: opportunities and challenges. J Nanopart Res 7:331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schaffner M, Bader HP, Scheidegger R (2009) Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution. Sci Total Environ 407:4902–4915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Scheren P, Zanting H, Lemmens A (2000) Estimation of water pollution sources in Lake Victoria, East Africa: application and elaboration of the rapid assessment methodology. J Environ Manag 58:235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Segneanu AE, Orbeci C, Lazau C, Sfirloaga P, Vlazan P, Bandas C, Grozescu I (2013) Waste water treatment methods. IntechOpen, London, pp 53–80.  https://doi.org/10.5772/53755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shon H, Phuntsho S, Chaudhary D, Vigneswaran S, Cho J (2013) Nanofiltration for water and wastewater treatment-a mini review. Drink Water Eng Sci 6:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Simeonidis K, Mourdikoudis S, Kaprara E, Mitrakas M, Polavarapu L (2016) Inorganic engineered nanoparticles in drinking water treatment: a critical review. Environ Sci Water Res Technol 2:43–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tajrishy M, Abrishamchi A (2005) Integrated approach to water and wastewater management for Tehra Iran. Paper presented at the Water Conservation Reuse and Recycling. Proceedings of the Iranian-American WorkshopGoogle Scholar
  41. Tentu RD, Basu S (2017) Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. Curr Opin Electrochem 5:56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Theron J, Eugene CT, de Kwaadsteniet M (2010) Current molecular and emerging nanobiotechnology approaches for the detection of microbial pathogens. Crit Rev Microbiol 36:318–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tsuru T, Izumi S, Yoshioka T, Asaeda M (2000) Temperature effect on transport performance by inorganic nanofiltration membranes. AICHE J 46:565–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Van der Bruggen B, Braeken L, Vandecasteele C (2002) Evaluation of parameters describing flux decline in nanofiltration of aqueous solutions containing organic compounds. Desalination 147:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Verma S, Daverey A, Sharma A (2017) Slow sand filtration for water and wastewater treatment–a review. Environ Technol Rev 6:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vikesland PJ, Wigginton KR (2010) Nanomaterial enabled biosensors for pathogen monitoring-a review. Environ Sci Technol 44:3656–3669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. WHO (1996) Rapid sand filtration.(= fact sheets on environmental sanitation, 2/14). Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). Accessed 15 Feb 2012Google Scholar
  48. Xiao J, Xie Y, Cao H (2015) Organic pollutants removal in wastewater by heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation. Chemosphere 121:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yao KM, Habibian MT, O'Melia CR (1971) Water and waste water filtration. Concepts and applications. Environ Sci Technol 5:1105–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhang Z, Wang P (2012) Highly stable copper oxide composite as an effective photocathode for water splitting via a facile electrochemical synthesis strategy. J Mater Chem 22:2456–2464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zheng Y (2011) Pretreatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO). Paper presented at the ISWREP International SymposiumGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Rafique
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Bilal Tahir
    • 1
  • Iqra Sadaf
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan

Personalised recommendations