Advertisement

Carbon-Based Nanostructured Materials for Energy and Environmental Remediation Applications

  • Shagufta Afreen
  • Rishabh Anand Omar
  • Neetu Talreja
  • Divya Chauhan
  • Mohammad Ashfaq
Chapter
Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)

Abstract

There is considerable attention on the field of nanotechnology because it has transformed many technologies such as information technology, medicine, food safety, environmental science, and energy. The unique and flexible characteristics of nanomaterials make them suitable candidates for various applications such as medicine, electronics, energy, photocatalytics, catalysis, sensors, energy storage, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), ultracapacitors, fuel cells, and environmental remediation. Nanomaterials in several shapes or morphologies—such as nanosized particles, tubes, wires, or fibers—and their polymeric composites are used for production of energy and removal of various contaminants such as chemicals (heavy metal ions, dyes, and pharmaceutical compounds); gases, including SO2, nitrous oxide, and CO; and biological contaminants—mainly Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Carbon-based nanomaterials contribute to a broad range of environmental applications, sorbents, high-flux membranes, depth filters, antimicrobial agents, renewable technology, and pollution prevention strategies. Advances in the fabrication of novel nanosized materials for treatment of contaminants and production of energy are described in this chapter. Moreover, research trends and outlines of future opportunities in environmental and energy applications are briefly discussed.

Keywords

Carbon nanomaterials Environmental remediation Energy Contamination 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge support from NPDF, SERB, Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India in the form of a research grant (PDF/2016/003602).

References

  1. Ajayan PM, Stephan O, Colliex C, Trauth D (1994) Aligned carbon nanotube arrays formed by cutting a polymer resin-nanotube composite. Science 265:1212–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aktar MW, Sengupta D, Chowdhury A (2009) Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdiscip Toxicol 2(1):1–12PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amin MT, Alazba AA, Manzoor U (2014) A review of removal of pollutants from water/wastewater using different types of nanomaterials. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2014:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anjum M, Miandad R, Waqas M, Gehany F, Barakat MA (2016) Remediation of wastewater using various nano-materials. Arab J Chem. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.10.004
  5. Ashfaq M, Singh S, Sharma A, Verma N (2013) Cytotoxic evaluation of the hierarchal web of carbon micro-nanofibers. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:4672–4682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashfaq M, Khan S, Verma N (2014) Synthesis of PVA-CAP-based biomaterial in situ dispersed with Cu nanoparticles and carbon micro-nanofibers for antibiotic drug delivery applications. Biochem Eng J 90:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashfaq M, Verma N, Khan S (2016a) Copper/Zinc bimetal nanoparticles-dispersed carbon nanofibers: a novel potential antibiotics material. Mater Sci Eng C 59:938–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashfaq M, Verma N, Khan S (2016b) Highly effective Cu/Zn-carbon micro/nanofiber-polymer nanocomposite-based wound dressing biomaterial against the P. aeruginosa multi-and extensively drug-resistant strains. Mater Sci Eng C 77:630–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashfaq M, Verma N, Khan S (2017) Carbon nanofibers as a micronutrient carrier in plants: efficient translocation and controlled release of Cu nanoparticles. Environ Sci Nano 4:138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashish B, Neeti K, Himanshu K (2013) Copper toxicity: a comprehensive study. Res J Recent Sci 2:58–67Google Scholar
  11. Awasthi SK, Ashfaq M, Singh S (2009) Effect of glucose and chloramphenicol on ABS biodegradation by a bacterial consortium. Biol Med 1(2):15–19Google Scholar
  12. Ayangbenro AS, Babalola OO (2017) A new strategy for heavy metal polluted environments: a review of microbial biosorbents. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(1):1–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bakry R, Vallant RM, Najam-ul-Haq M, Rainer M, Szabo Z, Huck CW, Bonn GK (2007) Medicinal applications of fullerenes. Int J Nanomedicine 2(4):639–649PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beyth N, Houri-Haddad Y, Domb A, Khan W, Hazan R (2015) Alternative antimicrobial approach: nano-antimicrobial materials. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015:246012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/246012CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhartiya DK, Singh K (2012) Heavy metals accumulation from municipal solid wastes with different animal dung through vermicomposting by earthworm Eisenia fetida. World Appl Sci J 17(1):133–139Google Scholar
  16. Bhattacharya K, Mukherjee SP, Gallud A, Burkert SC, Bistarelli S, Bellucci S, Bottini M, Star A, Fadeel B (2016) Biological interactions of carbon-based nanomaterials: from coronation to degradation. Nanomedicine 12(2):333–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhuyan MSA, NizamUddin M, Bipasha MMIFA, Hossain SS (2016) Synthesis of graphene. Int Nano Lett 6(2):65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blasdel NJ, Wujcik EK, Carletta JE, Lee KS, Monty CN (2015) Fabric nanocomposite resistance temperature detector. IEEE Sensors J 15:300–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cabral JPS (2010) Water microbiology: bacterial pathogens and water. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7(10):3657–3703PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cengel YA, Boles MA (2007) Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill, BostonGoogle Scholar
  21. Chauhan D, Jaiswal M, Sankararamakrishnan N (2012) Removal of cadmium and hexavalent chromium from electroplating waste water using thiocarbamoyl chitosan. Carbohydr Polym 88:670–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chauhan D, Afreen S, Mishra S, Sankararamakrishnan N (2016) Synthesis, characterization and application of Zinc augmented aminated PAN nanofibers towards decontamination of chemical and biological contaminants. J Ind Eng Chem 55:50–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen Q, Dai L, Gao M, Huang S, Mau A (2001) Plasma activation of carbon nanotubes for chemical modification. J Phys Chem B 105:618–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crosby C (2017) Human body organ systems. Hill & Ponton, PA. https://www.hillandponton.com/human-body-organ-systems/. Accessed
  25. DeVito SC, Brooks WE (2005) Mercury. In: Kirk‐Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley, Hoboken. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471238961.1305180304052209.a01.pub3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Do SY, Lee CG, Kim JY (2017) Cases of acute mercury poisoning by mercury vapor exposure during the demolition of a fluorescent lamp factory. Ann Occup Environ Med 29:19. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.2733.6169CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dong C, Campell AS, Eldawud R, Perhinschi G, Rojanasakul Y, Dinu CZ (2013) Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes. Appl Surf Sci 264:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duflo S, Greenstone M, Hanna R (2008) Indoor air pollution, health and economic well-being. Surv Perspect Integr Envir Soc 1:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dutta S, Kim J, Ide Y, Kim JH, Hossain MSA, Bando Y, Yamauchi Y, Wu KCW (2017) 3D network of cellulose-based energy storage devices and related emerging applications. Mater Horiz 4:1–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fan S, Wang B, Tesche M, Engelmann R, Althausen A, Liu J (2008) Meteorological conditions and structures of atmospheric boundary layer in October 2004 over Pearl River Delta area. Atmos Environ 42:6174–6186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Faraz M, Abbasi A, Naqvi FK, Khare N, Prasad R, Barman I, Pandey R (2018) Polyindole/CdS nanocomposite based turn-on, multi-ion fluorescence sensor for detection of Cr3+, Fe3+ and Sn2+ ions. Sensors Actuators B Chem 269:195–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2018.04.110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Feng SH, Li GH (2017) Hydrothermal and solvothermal syntheses. In: Xu R, Xu Y (eds) Modern inorganic synthetic chemistry, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 73–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferdous A, Maisha N, Sultana N, Ahmed S (2016) Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker’s yeast. AIP Conf. Proc. 1754(1). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4958452
  34. Flandrois S, Simon B (1999) Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Carbon 37:165–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Foster A, Kumar N (2011) Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Atmos Environ 45:1675–1683PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Frankenberg C, Meirink JF, van Weele M, Platt U, Wagner T (2005) Assessing methane emissions from global space borne observations. Science 308:1010–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frey HC, Zhai H, Rouphail NM (2009) Regional on road vehicle running emissions modeling and evaluation for conventional and alternative vehicle technologies. Environ Sci Technol 43:8449–8445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Galli SJ, Tsai M, Piliponsky AM (2008) The development of allergic inflammation. Nature 454(7203):445–454PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ghosh S (2016) Surface functionalized hybrid nanomaterials: implications in bio sensing and therapeutics surface chemistry of nano biomaterials. Appl Nano Biomater 3:1–32Google Scholar
  40. Greenstone M, Gayer T (2009) Quasi-experimental and experimental approaches to environmental economics. J Environ Econ Manag 57:21–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guo H, Wang T, Blake DR, Simpson IJ, Kwok YH, Li YS (2006) Regional and local contributions to ambient non methane volatile organic compounds at a polluted rural/coastal site in Pearl River Delta, China. Atmos Environ 40:2345–2359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guo CX, Yang HB, Sheng ZM, Lu ZS, Song QL, Li CM (2010) Layered graphene/quantum dots for photovoltaic devices. Angew Chem Int Ed 49:3014–3017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta VK, Tyagi I, Sadegh H, Ghoshekandi RS, Makhlouf ASH, Maazinejad B (2015) Nanoparticles as adsorbent; a positive approach for removal of noxious metal ions: a review. Sci Technol Dev 34(3):195–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hai FI, Yamamoto K, Fukushi K (2007) Hybrid treatment systems for dye wastewater. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 37:315–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harrison BS, Atala A (2007) Carbon nanotube applications for tissue engineering. Biomaterials 28:344–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huo H, Zhang Q, Wang MQ, Streets DG, He K (2010) Environmental implication of electric vehicles in China. Environ Sci Technol 44:4856–4861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hwang S, Batmunkh M, Nine MJ, Chung H, Jeong H (2015) Dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes based on carbon nanotubes. Chem Phys Chem 16(1:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Iijima S (1991) Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 354:56–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN (2014) Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol 7(2):60–72PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jaiswal M, Chauhan D, Sankararamakrishnan N (2012) Copper chitosan nanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, and application in removal of organophosphorous pesticide from agricultural runoff. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:2055–2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. James M, Seltzer JM (1994) Biological contaminants. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:318–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jana A, Scheer E, Polarz S (2017) Synthesis of graphene–transition metal oxide hybrid nanoparticles and their application in various fields. Beilstein J Nanotechnol 8:688–714PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Javey A, Kong J (2009) Carbon nanotube electronics. Springer, ISBN 978-0-387-36833-7, United States of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  54. Javey A, Guo J, Wang Q, Lundstrom M, Dai H (2003) Ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. Nature 424:654–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Joshi T, Iyengar L, Garg SK (2008) Isolation identification and application of novel bacterial consortium TJ-1 for decolorization of structurally different azo dyes. Bioresour Technol 99:7115–7121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Julien C, Mauger A, Vijh A, Zaghib K (2015) Lithium batteries. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19108-9_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kaushik BK, Majumder MK (2015) Carbon nanotube based VLSI interconnects: analysis and design. Springer, New DelhiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ke S, Wang J (2016) Graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes—a review. J Mater 2(1):37–54Google Scholar
  59. Khan I, Saeed K, Khan I (2017) Nanoparticles: properties, applications and toxicities. Arab J Chem. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.011
  60. Khare P, Talreja N, Deva D, Sharma A, Verma N (2013) Carbon nanofibers containing metal-doped porous carbon beads for environmental remediation applications. Chem Eng J 229:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Khulbe K, Matsuura T (2018) Removal of heavy metals and pollutants by membrane adsorption techniques. Appl Water Sci 8:19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0661-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim Y, Kim JW (2012) Toxic encephalopathy. Saf Health Work 3(4):243–256PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Köhrle J (1999) The trace element selenium and the thyroid gland. Biochimie 81:527–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kroto HW, Heath JR, O’Brien SC, Curl RF, Smalley RE (1985) C60: buckminsterfullerene. Nature 318:162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kumar V, Talreja N, Deva D, Sankararamakrishnan N, Sharma A, Verma N (2011) Development of bi-metal doped micro and nano multi-functional polymeric adsorbent for the removal of fluoride and arsenic in waste-water. Desalination 282:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kumar R, Ashfaq M, Verma N (2018) Novel PVA/starch-encapsulated Cu/Zn bimetal nanoparticle carrying carbon nanofibers as a biodegradable and anti-reactive oxidative nanofertilizer. J Mater Sci 53(10):7150–7164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kwok RHF, Fung JCH, Lau AKH, Fu JS (2010) Numerical study on seasonal variations of gaseous pollutants and particulate matters in Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta Region. J Geophys Res Atmos 115:D16308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lakherwal D (2014) Adsorption of heavy metals: a review. IJERD 4(1):41–48Google Scholar
  69. Leatherdale CA, Woo WK, Mikulec FV, Bawendi MG (2002) On the absorption cross section of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots. J Phys Chem 106:7619–7622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lee JSM, Briggs EM, Chang Hu C, Cooper AI (2018) Controlling electric double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance in heteroatom-doped carbons derived from hyper crosslinked microporous polymers. Nano Energy 46:277–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Li W, Liang C, Zhou W, Qiu J, Zhou Z, Sun G, Xin Q (2003) Preparation and characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotube–supported platinum for cathode catalysts of direct methanol fuel cells. J Phys Chem 107:6292–6299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Li B, Jung HY, Wang H, Kim YL, Kim T, Hahm MG, Busnaina A, Upmanyu M, Jung YJ (2011) Ultra-thin SWNTs films with tunable, anisotropic transport properties. Adv Funct Mater 21:1810–1815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lipomi DJ, Vosgueritchian M, Tee BCK, Hellstrom SL, Lee JA, Fox CH, Bao Z (2011) Skin like pressure and strain sensors based on transparent elastic films of carbon nanotubes. Nat Nanotechnol 6:788–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liu M, Yang Y, Zhu T, Liu Z (2007) A general approach to chemical modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes with peroxy organic acids and its application in polymer grafting. J Phys Chem C 111(6):2379–2385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu C, Yu Z, Neff D, Zhamu A, Jang BZ (2010) Graphene-based supercapacitor with an ultrahigh energy density. Nano Lett 10:4863–4868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu J, Huang J, Wujcik EK, Qiu B, Rutman D, Zhang X, Salazard E, Wei S, Guo Z (2015) Hydrophobic electrospun polyimide nanofibers for self-cleaning materials. Macromol Mater Eng 300:358–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lu W, Dai L (2010) Carbon nanotube supercapacitors. In: Marulanda JM (ed) Carbon nanotubes. IntechOpen. https://www.intechopen.com/books/carbon-nanotubes/carbon-nanotube-supercapacitors. Accessed
  78. Lu G, Yu K, Wen Z, Chen J (2013a) Semiconducting graphene: converting graphene from semimetal to semiconductor. Nanoscale 5:1353–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lu P, Xue D, Yang H, Liu Y (2013b) Supercapacitor and nanoscale research towards electrochemical energy storage. Int J Smart Nano Mater 4(1):2–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lukatskaya MR, Dunn B, Gogotsi Y (2016) Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage. Nat Commun 7:1–12647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Manawi YM, Ihsanullah ID, Samara A, Al-Ansari T, Atieh MA (2018) A review of carbon nanomaterials’ synthesis via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Materials (Basel) 11(5):1–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Martin S, Griswold W (2009) Human health effects of heavy metals. Cent Hazard Subst Res 785:532–6519Google Scholar
  83. Mazov I, Kuznetsov VL, Simonova IA, Stadnichenko AI, Ishchenko AV, Romanenko AI, Anikeeva OB (2012) Oxidation behavior of multiwall carbon nanotubes with different diameters and morphology. Appl Surf Sci 258(17):6272–6280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Minitha CR, Anithaa VS, Subramaniam V, Kumar RTR (2018) Impact of oxygen functional groups on reduced graphene oxide-based sensors for ammonia and toluene detection at room temperature. ACS Omega 3(4):4105–4112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Monty CN, Wujcik EK, Blasdel NJ (2013) Flexible electrode for detecting changes in temperature, humidity, and sodium ion concentration in sweat. US Patent 20130197319A1Google Scholar
  86. Morris JS, Crane SB (2013) Selenium toxicity from a misformulated dietary supplement, adverse health effects, and the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor. Nutrients 5(4):1024–1057PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Moumita K, Jaehwan K, Junghwan O, Il-Kwon O (2016) Recent progress in multifunctional graphene aerogels. Front Mater 3:1–29Google Scholar
  88. Mukherjee S (2011) Applied mineralogy: applications in industry and environment. Science Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mustafa S, Khan HM, Shukla I, Shujatullah F, Shahid M, Ashfaq M, Azam A (2011) Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on ESBL producing Escherichia coli & Klebsiella sp. East J Med 16:253–257Google Scholar
  90. Nasir S, Hussein MZ, Zainal Z, Yusof NA (2018) Carbon-based nanomaterials/allotropes: a glimpse of their synthesis, properties and some applications. Materials 11:295PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Nasrallah HA, Balling RC (1995) The heated debate: greenhouse predictions versus climate reality. Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  92. Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. O’Regan B, Graetzel M (1991) A low-cost, high efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nature 353:737–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Owusu PA, Sarkodie SA (2016) A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation. Cogent Eng 3(1):1–14Google Scholar
  95. Peng W, Li H, Liu Y, Song S (2017) A review on heavy metal ions adsorption from water by graphene oxide and its composite. J Mol Liq 230:496–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pope CA III, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K (2002) Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA 287:1132–1141PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Prasad R, Pandey R, Barman I (2016) Engineering tailored nanoparticles with microbes: quo vadis. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 8:316–330. https://doi.org/10.1002/wnan.1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Prashanth L, Kattapagari KK, Chitturi RT, Baddam VRR, Prasad LK (2015) A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease. J NTR Univ Health Sci 4(2):75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Qie L, Chen WM, Wang ZH, Shao QG, Li X, Yuan LX, Hu XL, Zhang WX, Huang YH (2012) Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs as anodes for lithium ion batteries with a super high capacity and rate capability. Adv Mater 24:2047–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Reynolds CO, Kandlikar M, Badami GM (2011) Determinants of PM and GHG emissions from natural gas-fueled auto rickshaws in Delhi. Transp Res D Transp Environ 16:160–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Romm J (2006) The car and fuel of the future. Energy Policy 34:2609–2614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ross RB, Cardona CM, Guldi DM, Sankaranarayanan SG, Reese MO, Kopidakis N, Peet J, Walker B, Bazan GC, Drees M (2009) Endohedral fullerenes for organic photovoltaic devices. Nat Mater 8:208–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ruomeng Yu R, Yongzheng Shi Y, Dongzhi Yang D, Yaxin Liu Y, Jin Qu J, Zhong-Zhen Yu ZZ (2017) Graphene oxide/chitosan aerogel microspheres with honeycomb-cobweb and radially oriented microchannel structures for broad-spectrum and rapid adsorption of water contaminants. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(26):21809–21819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sadhu SD, Garg M, Kumar A (2018) Major environmental issues and new materials. In: Hussain CM, Mishra AK (eds) New polymer nanocomposites for environmental remediation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 77–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Saha R, Nandi R, Saha B (2011) Sources and toxicity of hexavalent chromium. J Coord Chem 64:1782–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sankararamakrishnan N, Chauhan D (2014) Studies on the use of novel nano composite (CNT/chitosan/Fe(0)) towards arsenate removal. J Environ Res Develop 8:594–599Google Scholar
  107. Sankararamakrishnan N, Chauhan D, Dwivedi J (2016) Synthesis of functionalized carbon nanotubes by floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition method and their sorption behavior toward arsenic. Chem Eng J 284:599–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Saraswat R, Talreja N, Deva D, Sankararamakrisnan N, Sharma A, Verma N (2012) Development of novel in-situ nickel-doped, phenolic resin-based micro-nanoactivated carbon adsorbents for the removal of vitamin B-12. Chem Eng J 197:250–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sarkar J (2011) Characterization of benzoxaborole-based antifungal resistance mutations demonstrates that editing depends on electrostatic stabilization of the leucyl-tRNA synthetase editing cap. FEBS Lett 585(19):2986–2991PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Scida K, Stege PW, Haby G, Messina GA, García CD (2011) Recent applications of carbon-based nanomaterials in analytical chemistry: critical review. Anal Chim Acta 691(1–2):6–17PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Seger B, Kamat PV (2009) Electrocatalytically active graphene-platinum nanocomposites. Role of 2-D carbon support in PEM fuel cells. J Phys Chem 113:7990–7995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sharma A, Verma N, Sharma A, Deva D, Sankararamakrishnan N (2010) Iron doped phenolic resin based activated carbon micro and nanoparticles by milling: synthesis, characterization and application in arsenic removal. Chem Eng Sci 65:3591–3601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Shen DS, Cheng SY, Liu L, Chen T, Guo XR (2007) An integrated MM5-CMAQ modeling approach for assessing transboundary PM10 contribution to the host city of 2008 Olympic Summer Games—Beijing, China. Atmos Environ 22:1237–1250Google Scholar
  114. Singh S, Awasthi SK, Iyengar L, Ashfaq M, Singh P (2011) Mineralization of aminobenzenesulfonates by a newly isolated bacterial co-culture (AS1 & AS2). Biol Med 3(2):53–59Google Scholar
  115. Sivasubramaniam D, Franks AE (2016) Bioengineering microbial communities: their potential to help, hinder and disgust. Bioengineered 7(3):137–144PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Slezakova K, Pires JCM, Martins FG, Pereira MC, Alvim-Ferraz MC (2011) Identification of tobacco smoke components in indoor breathable particles by SEM-EDS. Atmos Environ 45:863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. South DW (1993) Coal and CO2: what are the options? Private Power Executive Sep–Oct:25–31Google Scholar
  118. Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Dommett GHB, Kohlhaas KM, Zimney EJ, Stach EA, Piner RD, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2006) Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442:282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stoller MD, Park S, Zhu Y, An J, Ruoff RS (2008) Graphene-based ultracapacitors. Nano Lett 8:3498–3502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Strong V, Dubin S, Kady MFE, Lech A, Wang Y, Weiller BH, Kaner RB (2012) Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices. ACS Nano 6(2):1395–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Talreja N, Verma N, Kumar D (2014) Removal of hexavalent chromium fromwater using Fe-grown carbon nanofibers containing porous carbon microbeads. J Water Process Eng 3:34–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Talreja N, Verma N, Kumar D (2016) Carbon bead-supported ethylene diamine functionalized carbon nanofibers: an excellent adsorbent for salicyclic acid. CLEAN-Soil Air Water 44(11):1461–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tang Z, Wu H, Cort JR, Buchko GW, Zhang Y, Shao Y, Aksay IA, Liu J, Lin Y (2010) Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity. Small 6:1205–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ (2012) Heavy metals toxicity and the environment. EXS 101:133–164PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Ullah R, Zafar MS (2015) Oral and dental delivery of fluoride: a review. Res Rev Fluoride 48(3):195–204Google Scholar
  126. Unosson E, Cai Y, Jiang X, Lööf J, Welch K, Engqvist H (2012) Antibacterial properties of dental luting agents: potential to hinder the development of secondary caries. Int J Dent 2012:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S (2014) Assessing exposure and health consequences of chemicals in drinking water: current state of knowledge and research needs. Environ Health Perspect 122(3):213–221PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Visakh PM (2016) Introduction for nanomaterials and nanocomposites: state of art, new challenges, and opportunities. In: Visakh PM, Morlanes MJM. Nanomaterials and nanocomposites: zero‐ to three‐dimensional materials and their composites. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  129. Wang J, Kaskel S (2012) KOH activation of carbon-based materials for energy storage. J Mater Chem 22(45):23710–23725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wang X, Ouyang Y, Li X, Wang H, Guo J, Dai H (2008) Room-temperature all-semiconducting sub-10-nm graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors. Phys Rev Lett 100:206803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wang Y, He Q, Qu H, Zhang X, Guo J, Zhu J, Zhao G, Colorado HA, Yu J, Sun L (2014) Magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites: nanoparticles growth mechanism and property analysis. J Mater Chem 2:9478–9488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wei JP, Srinivasan C, Han H, Valentine JS, Gralla EB (2001) Evidence for a novel role of copper–zinc superoxide dismutase in zinc metabolism. J Biol Chem 276(48):44798–44803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wei J, Jia Y, Shu Q, Gu Z, Wang K, Zhuang D, Zhang G, Wang Z, Luo J, Cao A, Wu D (2007) Double-walled carbon nanotube solar cells. Nano Lett 7:2317–2321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Winter M, Brodd R (2004) What are batteries, fuel cells, and super capacitors? Chem Rev 104(10):4245–4269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wu ZY, Li C, Liang HW, Zhang YN, Wang X, Chen JF, Yu SH (2014) Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions. Sci Rep 4:4079PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wu Z, Li L, Yan JM, Zhang XB (2017) Materials design and system construction for conventional and new concept super capacitors. Adv Sci 4:1600382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wuana RA, Okieimen FE (2011) Heavy metals in contaminated soils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecology 402647:20Google Scholar
  138. Wujcik EK (2013) Discovery of nanostructured material properties for advanced sensing platforms. Dissertation, University of AkronGoogle Scholar
  139. Wujcik EK, Monty CN (2013) Nanotechnology for implantable sensors: carbon nanotubes and graphene in medicine. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 5:233–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wujcik EK, Blasdel NJ, Trowbridge D, Monty CN (2013) Ion sensor for the quantification of sodium in sweat samples. IEEE Sensors J 13:3430–3436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wujcik EK, Wei H, Zhang X, Guo J, Yan X, Sutrave N, Wei S, Guo Z (2014) Antibody nanosensors: a detailed review. RSC Adv 4:43725–43745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Xia F, Farmer DB, Lin Y, Avouris P (2015) Graphene field-effect transistors with high on/off current ratio and large transport band gap at room temperature. Nano Lett 10:715–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Xin W, Song Y (2015) Mesoporous carbons: recent advances in synthesis and typical applications. RSC Adv 5:83239–83285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Yan C, Wang J, Kang W, Cui M, Wang X, Foo CY, Chee KJ, Lee PS (2014) Highly stretchable piezo resistive graphene-nanocellulose nanopaper for strain sensors. Adv Mater 26:2022–2027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yun S, Hagfeldt A, Ma T (2014) Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency. Adv Mater 26(36):6210–6237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Yuxi X, Gaoquan S (2011) Assembly of chemically modified graphene: methods and applications. J Mater Chem 21:3311–3323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zhang J, Wang T, Chameides WL, Cardelino C, Blake DR, Streets DG (2008) Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China. Atmos Chem Phys 8:4983–4996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zhang Q, Zhang S, Zhang L (2014) Microwave-assisted modification of carbon nanotubes with biocompatible polylactic acid. J Mater Sci Chem Eng 2:7–12Google Scholar
  149. Zhang Y, Gao Z, Song N, He J, Li X (2018) Graphene and its derivatives in lithium–sulfur batteries. Mater Today Energy 9:319–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zhao X, Zhang Q, Chen D, Lu P (2010) Enhanced mechanical properties of graphene-based poly (vinyl alcohol) composites. Macromolecules 43:2357–2363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Zheng Q, Kim JK (2015) Synthesis, structure, and properties of graphene and graphene oxide. In: Zheng Q, Kim JK. Graphene for transparent conductors: synthesis, properties and applications. Springer, New York, pp 29–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Zheng X, Zhang L (2016) Photonic nanostructures for solar energy conversion. Energy Environ Sci 9:2511–2532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zheng J, Shao M, Che W, Zhang L, Zhong L, Zhang Y (2009) Speciated VOC emission inventory and spatial patterns of ozone formation potential in the Pearl River Delta, China. Environ Sci Technol 43:8580–8586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zheng JS, Zhang L, Shellikeri A, Cao W, Wu Q, Zheng JP (2017) A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage. Sci Rep 7:41910PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Zhenqing X, Kumar A, Kumar A (2005) Amperometric detection of glucose using a modified nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond electrode. J Biomed Nanotechnol 1(4):1–5Google Scholar
  156. Zhu J, Wei S, Gu H, Rapole SB, Wang Q, Luo Z, Haldolaarachchige N, Young DP, Guo Z (2011) One-pot synthesis of magnetic graphene nanocomposites decorated with core@double-shell nanoparticles for fast chromium removal. Environ Sci Technol 46:977–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zhu J, Chen M, Qu H, Luo Z, Wu S, Colorado HA, Wei S, Guo Z (2012a) Magnetic field induced capacitance enhancement in graphene and magnetic graphene nanocomposites. Energy Environ Sci 6:194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhu J, Sadu R, Wei S, Chen DH, Haldolaarachchige N, Luo Z, Gomes JA, Young DP, Guo Z (2012b) Magnetic graphene nanoplatelet composites toward arsenic removal. ECS J Solid State Sci Technol 1:M1–M5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zhu J, Chen M, Wei H, Yerra N, Haldolaarachchige N, Luo Z, Young DP, Ho TC, Wei S, Guo Z (2014) Magneto capacitance in magnetic micro tubular carbon nanocomposites under external magnetic field. Nano Energy 6:180–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zulkifili ANB, Kento T, Daiki M, Fujiki A (2015) The basic research on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). J Clean Energy Technol 3:382–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Zuo W, Li R, Zhou C, Li Y, Xia J, Liu J (2017) Battery-super capacitor hybrid devices: recent progress and future prospects. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shagufta Afreen
    • 1
  • Rishabh Anand Omar
    • 2
  • Neetu Talreja
    • 3
  • Divya Chauhan
    • 4
  • Mohammad Ashfaq
    • 5
  1. 1.Dayanand Girls Post Graduate CollegeKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Bio-nanotechnologyGachon UniversitySeongnamSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryPunjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  5. 5.School of Life ScienceBS Abdur Rahaman Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations