War Over Constitutional Principles
During the EEA negotiations, the Nordic EFTA States Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden took the view that accepting the principles of direct effect and primacy as part of EEA law was out of the question, in the light of their dualistic tradition. The Commission for its part wanted to avoid that the situation that had occurred under the 1972 bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) would repeat itself in EEA law. In view of the accession of the UK, Denmark and Ireland to the EEC, each of the remaining EFTA States concluded an FTA with the EEC. These FTAs were bilateral in nature, but largely identical in substance.