Advertisement

Thinking Inside the Box: Using Graphic Novels to English Language Learners in the Social Studies Classroom

  • Carla K. MeyerEmail author
  • Laura J. Mahalingappa
  • Kristy A. Brugar
Chapter
Part of the English Language Education book series (ELED, volume 17)

Abstract

Too often in social studies classroom teachers rely too heavily on textbooks; yet, textbooks are often criticized for their challenging structures, demanding conceptual loads, and heavy language loads. Nonetheless, educators cannot ignore the recent call for reading in the content areas. This chapter will detail how to use a Sheltered model that incorporates an explicit focus on disciplinary language needs and development to teach English Language Learners history while investigating the role graphic novels and reflective inquiry play in their instruction.

References

  1. Bain, R. (2006). Rounding up the usual suspects: Facing the authority hidden in the history classroom. Teachers College Record, 108(10), 2080–2114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2013). Bringing words to life 2nd edition. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Boatright, M. D. (2010). Graphic journeys: Graphic novels’ representations of immigrant experiences. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53, 468–476.  https://doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.53.6.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, C. L. (2007). Supporting English language learners in content reading. Reading Improvement, 44(1), 32–40.Google Scholar
  5. Brozo, W. G., Moorman, G., Meyer, C., & Stewart, T. (2013). Content area reading and disciplinary literacy: A case for the radical center. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(5), 353–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brugar, K. A., Roberts, K. L., Jiménez, L. M., & Meyer, C. K. (2017). More than mere motivation: Learning specific Content through multimodal narratives. Journal of Literacy Research and Instruction, 1–26.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19388071.2017.1351586 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cary, S. (2004). Going graphic: Comics at work in the multilingual classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  8. Cho, S., & Reich, G. A. (2008). New immigrants, new challenges: High school social studies teachers and English language learner instruction. The Social Studies, 99, 235–242. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ819536 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Choi, J., & Yi, Y. (2016). Teachers’ integration of multimodality into classroom practices for English Language Learners. TESOL Journal, 7(2), 304–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, J. S. (2014). Teaching historical agency: Explicitly connecting past and present with graphic novels. Social Studies Research and Practice, 9(3), 66–80.Google Scholar
  11. Connors, S. P. (2010). ‘The best of both worlds’: Rethinking the literary merit of graphic novels. The ALAN Review, 37(3).  https://doi.org/10.21061/alan.v37i3.a.9
  12. Cruz, B., & Thornton, S. (2009). Social studies for English language learners: Teaching social studies that matters. Social Education, 73(6), 271–274.Google Scholar
  13. Dallacqua, A. K. (2012). Exploring literary devices in graphic novels. Language Arts, 89, 365–378. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41804360
  14. Danzak, R. L. (2011). Defining identities through multiliteracies: EL teens narrate their immigration experiences as graphic stories. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55, 187–196.  https://doi.org/10.1002/JAAL.00024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Oliveira, L. C. (2011). Knowing and writing school history: The language of students’ expository writing and teachers’ expectations. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Echevarría, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2010). Making content comprehensible for secondary English language learners: The SIOP model (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  17. Hale, N. (2012). Nathan Hale’s hazardous tales: One dead spy. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams.Google Scholar
  18. Hale, N. (2015). The underground abductor: An abolitionist tale Harriet Tubman. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams.Google Scholar
  19. Halliday, M. A. (1994). Functional grammar. London, UK: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  20. Hawkins, M., Lopez, K., & Hughes, R. L. (2016). John Lewis’s March, Book Two: Assessing the impact of a graphic novel on teaching the civil rights movement. Social Education, 80(3), 151–156.Google Scholar
  21. Jiménez, L. M., & Meyer, C. K. (2016). First impressions matter: Navigating graphic novels utilizing linguistic, visual, and spatial resources. Journal of Literacy Research, 48(4), 423–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Santa Fe Springs, CA: Alemany Press.Google Scholar
  23. Lee, P. (2005). Putting principles into practice: Understanding history). In S. Donovan & J. Bransford (Eds.), How students learn: History, mathematics, and science in the classroom (pp. 31–77). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lewis, J., & Aydin, A. (2015). March: Book two. Marietta, GA: Top Shelf Productions.Google Scholar
  25. Mathews, M. R. (Ed.). (2014). International handbook of research in history, philosophy and science teaching. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7654-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meyer, C. K., & Jiménez, L. M. (2017). Using every word and image: Framing graphic novel instruction in the expanded four resources model. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 61(2), 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCloud, S. (1994). Understanding comics: The invisible art. New York, NY: William Morrow Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  28. Moje, E. B. (2008). Foregrounding the disciplines in secondary literacy teaching and learning: A call for change. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(2), 96–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Monte-Sano, C. (2011). Beyond reading comprehension and summary: Learning to read and write in history by focusing on evidence, perspective, and interpretation. Curriculum Inquiry, 41(2), 212–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. National Council for Social Studies. (2010). National curriculum standards for social studies: A framework for teaching, learning, and assessment. Silver Springs, MD: National Council for Social Studies.Google Scholar
  31. National Council for the Social Studies. (2016). Notable social studies trade books for young people. Retrieved from http://www.socialstudies.org/resources/notable
  32. Nokes, J. D. (2010). Preparing novice history teachers to meet students’ literacy needs. Reading Psychology, 31(6), 493–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pantaleo, S. (2014). Reading images in graphic novels: Taking students to a ‘greater thinking level. English in Australia, 49(1), 38–51.Google Scholar
  34. Park, J. Y. (2016a). “Breaking the word” and “sticking with the picture”: Critical literacy education of US immigrant youth with graphic novels. English Teaching: Practice & Critique, 15(1), 91–104. Retrieved from  https://doi.org/10.1108/ETPC-08-2015-0065 Google Scholar
  35. Park, J. Y. (2016b). “He didn’t add more evidence”: Using historical graphic novels to develop language learners’ disciplinary literacy. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 60(1), 35–43.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rance-Roney, J. (2010). Jump-starting language and schema for English-language learners: Teacher-composed digital jumpstarts for academic reading. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(5), 386–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schleppegrell, M. J., Achugar, M., & Oteíza, T. (2004). The grammar of history: Enhancing content-based instruction through a functional focus on language. TESOL Quarterly, 38(1), 67–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Serafini, F. (2010). Reading multimodal texts: Perceptual, structural and ideological perspectives. Children’s Literature in Education, 41(2), 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shanahan, T., & Shanahan, C. (2012). What is disciplinary literacy and why does it matter? Topics in Language Disorders, 32(1), 7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Siegel, M. (2012). New times for multimodality? Confronting the accountability culture. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(8), 671–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. VanSledright, B. (2012). Learning with texts in history. In T. L. Jetton & C. Shanahan (Eds.), Adolescent literacy in the academic disciplines (pp. 199–226). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  42. WIDA Consortium. (2016). The WIDA can do descriptors: Key uses edition, grade 6–8. Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Retrieved from https://www.wida.us/standards/CAN_DOs/
  43. Wineburg, S. (2001). Historical thinking and other unnatural acts: Charting the future of teaching the past. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carla K. Meyer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laura J. Mahalingappa
    • 1
  • Kristy A. Brugar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Instruction and Leadership in EducationDuquesne UniversityPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Instructional Leadership and Academic CurriculumUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA

Personalised recommendations