Stepping Back: Analysis and Discussion of ICT and Language Change

  • Richard S. Pinner


This chapter takes a more holistic view of some of the issues that have surfaced throughout this book. In particular, it discusses the impact of visuals on conversation, particularly looking at how they affect the brain and memory. It then discusses the issue of exomemory in relation to working memory, and then discusses the need for critical thinking skills during augmented communication, due to the way mass media is often structured and disseminated. It discusses whether smartphones are really making us ‘dumb’, and finally addresses the wider existential concerns about how smartphones prevent people from being ‘in the moment’ or ‘being there’.


Digital communication Face-to-face interactions Technology Language Applied linguistics Sociolinguistics 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of English LiteratureSophia UniversityTokyoJapan

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