Prevention and Treatment of Procedure-Associated Infection

  • James V. Twede
  • Christian L. BaumEmail author


Procedure-associated and surgical site infections (SSI) in dermatology are rare; however, it is prudent to understand their prevention and treatment. SSI has been variably defined, which may contribute to the broad range of results from studies aimed at quantifying the risk of SSI. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines an SSI as a wound that suppurates within 30 days of the procedure, even in the absence of a positive culture (Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG. Am J Infect Control 20(5):271–4, 1992). The application of this definition is particularly challenging for dermatologic procedures since wounds may become colonized with organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and suture granulomas may present with a sterile suppurative exudate within 30 days of the procedure. In this situation, good clinical judgment and the quantity of bacteria (>105) (Robson MC, Heggers JP. J Surg Oncol 2(4):379–83, 1970) in the wound can be helpful in differentiating colonization versus a true SSI.


Skin Surgical site infection Prevention Treatment Risk Dermatology 


  1. 1.
    Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG. CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. Am J Infect Control. 1992;20(5):271–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Robson MC, Heggers JP. Delayed wound closure based on bacterial counts. J Surg Oncol. 1970;2(4):379–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cook JL, Perone JB. A prospective evaluation of the incidence of complications associated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139(2):143–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Futoryan T, Grande D. Postoperative wound infection rates in dermatologic surgery. Dermatol Surg. 1995;21(6):509–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dixon AJ, Dixon MP, Askew DA, Wilkinson D. Prospective study of wound infections in dermatologic surgery in the absence of prophylactic antibiotics. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32(6):819–26. discussion 826–817.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Council ML, Alam M, Gloster HM Jr, et al. Identifying and defining complications of dermatologic surgery to be tracked in the American College of Mohs Surgery (ACMS) Registry. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74(4):739–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kulichova D, Geimer T, Muhlstadt M, Ruzicka T, Kunte C. Surgical site infections in skin surgery: a single center experience. J Dermatol. 2013;40(10):779–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robson MC. Wound infection. A failure of wound healing caused by an imbalance of bacteria. Surg Clin North Am. 1997;77(3):637–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heal CF, Buettner PG, Drobetz H. Risk factors for surgical site infection after dermatological surgery. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51(7):796–803.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rhinehart MB, Murphy MM, Farley MF, Albertini JG. Sterile versus nonsterile gloves during Mohs micrographic surgery: infection rate is not affected. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32(2):170–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Amici JM, Rogues AM, Lasheras A, et al. A prospective study of the incidence of complications associated with dermatological surgery. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153(5):967–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alam M, Ibrahim O, Nodzenski M, et al. Adverse events associated with mohs micrographic surgery: multicenter prospective cohort study of 20,821 cases at 23 centers. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149(12):1378–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dicarlo AL, Fuldner R, Kaminski J, Hodes R. Aging in the context of immunological architecture, function and disease outcomes. Trends Immunol. 2009;30(7):293–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Merritt BG, Lee NY, Brodland DG, Zitelli JA, Cook J. The safety of Mohs surgery: a prospective multicenter cohort study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67(6):1302–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kimyai-Asadi A, Goldberg LH, Peterson SR, Silapint S, Jih MH. The incidence of major complications from Mohs micrographic surgery performed in office-based and hospital-based settings. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53(4):628–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moiemen NS, Frame JD. Toxic shock syndrome after minor dermatological surgery. BMJ. 1993;306(6884):1067.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gibbon KL, Bewley AP. Acquired streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis following excision of malignant melanoma. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141(4):717–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Horasan ES, Dag A, Ersoz G, Kaya A. Surgical site infections and mortality in elderly patients. Med Mal Infect. 2013;43(10):417–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaye KS, Anderson DJ, Sloane R, et al. The effect of surgical site infection on older operative patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(1):46–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beck FK, Rosenthal TC. Prealbumin: a marker for nutritional evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2002;65(8):1575–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jewell L, Guerrero R, Quesada AR, Chan LS, Garner WL. Rate of healing in skin-grafted burn wounds. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120(2):451–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moghazy AM, Adly OA, Abbas AH, Moati TA, Ali OS, Mohamed BA. Assessment of the relation between prealbumin serum level and healing of skin-grafted burn wounds. Burns. 2010;36(4):495–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson TM, Ratner D, Nelson BR. Soft tissue reconstruction with skin grafting. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27(2 Pt 1):151–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Billingsley EM, Maloney ME. Intraoperative and postoperative bleeding problems in patients taking warfarin, aspirin, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. A prospective study. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23(5):381–3. discussion 384–385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bordeaux JS, Martires KJ, Goldberg D, Pattee SF, Fu P, Maloney ME. Prospective evaluation of dermatologic surgery complications including patients on multiple antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(3):576–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Menke A, Casagrande S, Geiss L, Cowie CC. Prevalence of and trends in diabetes among adults in the United States, 1988–2012. JAMA. 2015;314(10):1021–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dixon AJ, Dixon MP, Dixon JB. Prospective study of skin surgery in patients with and without known diabetes. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35(7):1035–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bamba R, Gupta V, Shack RB, Grotting JC, Higdon KK. Evaluation of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for major complications in patients undergoing aesthetic surgery. Aesthet Surg J. 2016;36(5):598–608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Musallam KM, Rosendaal FR, Zaatari G, et al. Smoking and the risk of mortality and vascular and respiratory events in patients undergoing major surgery. JAMA Surg. 2013;148(8):755–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sorensen LT. Wound healing and infection in surgery. The clinical impact of smoking and smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Surg. 2012;147(4):373–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sorensen LT, Hemmingsen U, Jorgensen T. Strategies of smoking cessation intervention before hernia surgery—effect on perioperative smoking behavior. Hernia. 2007;11(4):327–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lindstrom D, Sadr Azodi O, Wladis A, et al. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2008;248(5):739–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dixon AJ, Dixon MP, Dixon JB, Del Mar CB. Prospective study of skin surgery in smokers vs. nonsmokers. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160(2):365–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wahie S, Lawrence CM. Wound complications following diagnostic skin biopsies in dermatology inpatients. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143(10):1267–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Webster J, Osborne S. Preoperative bathing or showering with skin antiseptics to prevent surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;2:CD004985.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Toon CD, Sinha S, Davidson BR, Gurusamy KS. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;7:CD010075.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bencini PL, Galimberti M, Signorini M. Utility of topical benzoyl peroxide for prevention of surgical skin wound infection. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1994;20(8):538–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hon KL, Tsang YC, Lee VW, et al. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) baths to reduce Staphylococcus aureus colonization in childhood onset moderate-to-severe eczema: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. J Dermatolog Treat. 2016;27(2):156–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Finnell SM, Rosenman MB, Christenson JC, Downs SM. Decolonization of children after incision and drainage for MRSA abscess: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Pediatr. 2015;54(5):445–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tai YJ, Borchard KL, Gunson TH, Smith HR, Vinciullo C. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery is an important risk factor for postoperative surgical site infection: a prospective randomised study. Australas J Dermatol. 2013;54(2):109–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kluytmans J, van Belkum A, Verbrugh H. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997;10(3):505–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Perl TM, Cullen JJ, Wenzel RP, et al. Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(24):1871–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    van Rijen M, Bonten M, Wenzel R, Kluytmans J. Mupirocin ointment for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections in nasal carriers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;4:CD006216.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Phillips M, Rosenberg A, Shopsin B, et al. Preventing surgical site infections: a randomized, open-label trial of nasal mupirocin ointment and nasal povidone-iodine solution. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35(7):826–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spooner JL. History of surgical face masks. AORN J. 1967;5(1):76–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vincent M, Edwards P. Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD002929.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Da Zhou C, Sivathondan P, Handa A. Unmasking the surgeons: the evidence base behind the use of facemasks in surgery. J R Soc Med. 2015;108(6):223–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Davies CG, Khan MN, Ghauri AS, Ranaboldo CJ. Blood and body fluid splashes during surgery—the need for eye protection and masks. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007;89(8):770–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ruthman JC, Hendricksen D, Miller RF, Quigg DL. Effect of cap and mask on infection rates in wounds sutured in the emergency department. IMJ Ill Med J. 1984;165(6):397–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Eisen DB. Surgeon’s garb and infection control: what’s the evidence? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64(5):960 e961–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Amirfeyz R, Tasker A, Ali S, Bowker K, Blom A. Theatre shoes - a link in the common pathway of postoperative wound infection? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007;89(6):605–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Humphreys H, Marshall RJ, Ricketts VE, Russell AJ, Reeves DS. Theatre over-shoes do not reduce operating theatre floor bacterial counts. J Hosp Infect. 1991;17(2):117–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Carter R. The journal of infection control nursing. Ritual and risk. Nurs Times. 1990;86(13):63–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Arrowsmith VA, Taylor R. Removal of nail polish and finger rings to prevent surgical infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;8:CD003325.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HIPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Am J Infect Control. 2002;30(8):S1–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Webster J, Alghamdi A. Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery for preventing surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;4:CD006353.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Falk-Brynhildsen K, Soderquist B, Friberg O, Nilsson UG. Bacterial recolonization of the skin and wound contamination during cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial of the use of plastic adhesive drape compared with bare skin. J Hosp Infect. 2013;84(2):151–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Showalter BM, Crantford JC, Russell GB, et al. The effect of reusable versus disposable draping material on infection rates in implant-based breast reconstruction: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Plast Surg. 2014;72(6):S165–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Werner HP, Hoborn J, Schon K, Petri E. Influence of drape permeability on wound contamination during mastectomy. Eur J Surg. 1991;157(6–7):379–83.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Perelman VS, Francis GJ, Rutledge T, Foote J, Martino F, Dranitsaris G. Sterile versus nonsterile gloves for repair of uncomplicated lacerations in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43(3):362–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Xia Y, Cho S, Greenway HT, Zelac DE, Kelley B. Infection rates of wound repairs during Mohs micrographic surgery using sterile versus nonsterile gloves: a prospective randomized pilot study. Dermatol Surg. 2011;37(5):651–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rogues AM, Lasheras A, Amici JM, et al. Infection control practices and infectious complications in dermatological surgery. J Hosp Infect. 2007;65(3):258–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brewer JD, Gonzalez AB, Baum CL, et al. Comparison of sterile vs nonsterile gloves in cutaneous surgery and common outpatient dental procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152(9):1008–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dumville JC, McFarlane E, Edwards P, Lipp A, Holmes A, Liu Z. Preoperative skin antiseptics for preventing surgical wound infections after clean surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;4:CD003949.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Darouiche RO, Wall MJ Jr, Itani KM, et al. Chlorhexidine-alcohol versus povidone-Iodine for surgical-site antisepsis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(1):18–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tanner J, Dumville JC, Norman G, Fortnam M. Surgical hand antisepsis to reduce surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;1:CD004288.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Liu LQ, Mehigan S. The effects of surgical hand scrubbing protocols on skin integrity and surgical site infection rates: a systematic review. AORN J. 2016;103(5):468–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tanner J, Norrie P, Melen K. Preoperative hair removal to reduce surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;11:CD004122.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shi D, Yao Y, Yu W. Comparison of preoperative hair removal methods for the reduction of surgical site infections: a meta-analysis. J Clin Nurs. 2017;26(19-20):2907–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Aird LN, Brown CJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical skin incisions. Am J Surg. 2012;204(2):216–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Moreira CM, Amaral E. Use of electrocautery for coagulation and wound complications in caesarean sections. Sci World J. 2014;2014:602375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nasseri E. Prospective study of wound infections in mohs micrographic surgery using a single set of instruments. Dermatol Surg. 2015;41(9):1008–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wu X, Kubilay NZ, Ren J, et al. Antimicrobial-coated sutures to decrease surgical site infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017;36(1):19–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sandini M, Mattavelli I, Nespoli L, Uggeri F, Gianotti L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of sutures coated with triclosan for the prevention of surgical site infection after elective colorectal surgery according to the PRISMA statement. Medicine. 2016;95(35):e4057.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chen SY, Chen TM, Dai NT, et al. Do antibacterial-coated sutures reduce wound infection in head and neck cancer reconstruction? Eur J Surg Oncol. 2011;37(4):300–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Krishnan R, MacNeil SD, Malvankar-Mehta MS. Comparing sutures versus staples for skin closure after orthopaedic surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016;6(1):e009257.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Iavazzo C, Gkegkes ID, Vouloumanou EK, Mamais I, Peppas G, Falagas ME. Sutures versus staples for the management of surgical wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am Surg. 2011;77(9):1206–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Soni A, Narula R, Kumar A, Parmar M, Sahore M, Chandel M. Comparing cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive and conventional subcuticular skin sutures for maxillofacial incisions—a prospective randomized trial considering closure time, wound morbidity, and cosmetic outcome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71(12):2152 e2151–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ando M, Tamaki T, Yoshida M, et al. Surgical site infection in spinal surgery: a comparative study between 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and staples for wound closure. Eur Spine J. 2014;23(4):854–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gurusamy KS, Toon CD, Allen VB, Davidson BR. Continuous versus interrupted skin sutures for non-obstetric surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2:CD010365.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Carmichael AJ, Flanagan PG, Holt PJ, Duerden BI. The occurrence of bacteraemia with skin surgery. Br J Dermatol. 1996;134(1):120–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wright TI, Baddour LM, Berbari EF, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis in dermatologic surgery: advisory statement 2008. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59(3):464–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rogers HD, Desciak EB, Marcus RP, Wang S, MacKay-Wiggan J, Eliezri YD. Prospective study of wound infections in Mohs micrographic surgery using clean surgical technique in the absence of prophylactic antibiotics. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(5):842–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cherian P, Gunson T, Borchard K, Tai Y, Smith H, Vinciullo C. Oral antibiotics versus topical decolonization to prevent surgical site infection after Mohs micrographic surgery—a randomized, controlled trial. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39(10):1486–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Round JL, Mazmanian SK. The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9(5):313–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shehab N, Patel PR, Srinivasan A, Budnitz DS. Emergency department visits for antibiotic-associated adverse events. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(6):735–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lee BY, Singh A, David MZ, et al. The economic burden of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19(6):528–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bauer MP, Notermans DW, van Benthem BH, et al. Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a hospital-based survey. Lancet. 2011;377(9759):63–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Huether MJ, Griego RD, Brodland DG, Zitelli JA. Clindamycin for intraincisional antibiotic prophylaxis in dermatologic surgery. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(9):1145–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Griego RD, Zitelli JA. Intra-incisional prophylactic antibiotics for dermatologic surgery. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(6):688–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Martin JE, Speyer LA, Schmults CD. Heightened infection-control practices are associated with significantly lower infection rates in office-based Mohs surgery. Dermatol Surg. 2010;36(10):1529–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lilly E, Schmults CD. A comparison of high- and low-cost infection-control practices in dermatologic surgery. Arch Dermatol. 2012;148(7):859–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Saco M, Howe N, Nathoo R, Cherpelis B. Topical antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of surgical wound infections from dermatologic procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dermatolog Treat. 2015;26(2):151–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Smack DP, Harrington AC, Dunn C, et al. Infection and allergy incidence in ambulatory surgery patients using white petrolatum vs bacitracin ointment. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1996;276(12):972–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dixon AJ, Dixon MP, Dixon JB. Randomized clinical trial of the effect of applying ointment to surgical wounds before occlusive dressing. Br J Surg. 2006;93(8):937–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Milner SM. Acetic acid to treat pseudomonas aeruginosa in superficial wounds and burns. Lancet. 1992;340(8810):61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Madhusudhan VL. Efficacy of 1% acetic acid in the treatment of chronic wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: prospective randomised controlled clinical trial. Int Wound J. 2016;13(6):1129–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Campbell RM, Perlis CS, Fisher E, Gloster HM Jr. Gentamicin ointment versus petrolatum for management of auricular wounds. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(6):664–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Landeck L, John SM, Geier J. Topical ophthalmic agents as allergens in periorbital dermatitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98(2):259–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Watkins RR, David MZ, Salata RA. Current concepts on the virulence mechanisms of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61(Pt 9):1179–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Liu C, Bayer A, Cosgrove SE, et al. Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(3):e18–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Holmes L, Ma C, Qiao H, et al. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy reduces failure and recurrence in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin abscesses after surgical drainage. J Pediatr. 2016;169:128–34. e121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Talan DA, Lovecchio F, Abrahamian FM, et al. A randomized trial of clindamycin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for uncomplicated wound infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(12):1505–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Smith SR, Newton K, Smith JA, et al. Internal dressings for healing perianal abscess cavities. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;8:CD011193.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Norman G, Dumville JC, Mohapatra DP, Owens GL, Crosbie EJ. Antibiotics and antiseptics for surgical wounds healing by secondary intention. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD011712.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gupta PJ, Heda PS, Kalaskar S, Tamaskar VP. Topical sucralfate decreases pain after hemorrhoidectomy and improves healing: a randomized, blinded, controlled study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008;51(2):231–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Okeniyi JA, Olubanjo OO, Ogunlesi TA, Oyelami OA. Comparison of healing of incised abscess wounds with honey and EUSOL dressing. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(3):511–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Piaggesi A, Goretti C, Mazzurco S, et al. A randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy and safety of a new super-oxidized solution for the management of wide postsurgical lesions of the diabetic foot. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2010;9(1):10–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dumville JC, Gray TA, Walter CJ, Sharp CA, Page T. Dressings for the prevention of surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;9:CD003091.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Walter CJ, Dumville JC, Sharp CA, Page T. Systematic review and meta-analysis of wound dressings in the prevention of surgical-site infections in surgical wounds healing by primary intention. Br J Surg. 2012;99(9):1185–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Am J Infect Control. 1999;27(2):97–132. quiz 133–134; discussion 196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Toon CD, Lusuku C, Ramamoorthy R, Davidson BR, Gurusamy KS. Early versus delayed dressing removal after primary closure of clean and clean-contaminated surgical wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;9:CD010259.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Dumville JC, Webster J, Evans D, Land L. Negative pressure wound therapy for treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;5:CD011334.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Walia S, Alster TS. Cutaneous CO2 laser resurfacing infection rate with and without prophylactic antibiotics. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25(11):857–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sriprachya-Anunt S, Fitzpatrick RE, Goldman MP, Smith SR. Infections complicating pulsed carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for photoaged facial skin. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23(7):527–35. discussion 535–526.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Manuskiatti W, Fitzpatrick RE, Goldman MP, Krejci-Papa N. Prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing laser resurfacing of the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40(1):77–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Conn H, Nanda VS. Prophylactic fluconazole promotes reepithelialization in full-face carbon dioxide laser skin resurfacing. Lasers Surg Med. 2000;26(2):201–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wall SH, Ramey SJ, Wall F. Famciclovir as antiviral prophylaxis in laser resurfacing procedures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;104(4):1103–8. discussion 1109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Beeson WH, Rachel JD. Valacyclovir prophylaxis for herpes simplex virus infection or infection recurrence following laser skin resurfacing. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28(4):331–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gilbert S, McBurney E. Use of valacyclovir for herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) prophylaxis after facial resurfacing: a randomized clinical trial of dosing regimens. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26(1):50–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Alster TS, Nanni CA. Famciclovir prophylaxis of herpes simplex virus reactivation after laser skin resurfacing. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25(3):242–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations