Port-Wine Birthmark and Hemangioma

  • Leah K. Spring
  • Andrew C. KrakowskiEmail author


Port-wine birthmarks (PWB) and infantile hemangiomas (IH) typically present, respectively, at birth to within weeks of birth and represent two of the most common types of vascular anomalies in children. Without treatment, port-wine birthmarks follow an expected evolution of hypertrophic change and bleb development (usually around the third decade of life) with associated physical and psychosocial comorbidities. Conversely, infantile hemangiomas typically follow a process of predictable involution that begins at approximately 1 year of life; despite the overall positive clinical outcome of most infantile hemangiomas, permanent sequelae such as telangiectasia, atrophic wrinkling, and redundant skin with fibro-fatty residua may be observed in up to 50% of patients after “spontaneous resolution,” a consideration that should be included in long-term prognosis and patient expectation discussions. Myriad medical and procedural treatment options exist for both PWB and IH and their associated complications, and patients may seek intervention at any age (i.e., infant to adult). It is therefore incumbent on all dermatologists and plastic surgeons to keep abreast of evolving treatment technologies and therapeutic approaches in order to deliver optimal clinical outcomes. This chapter reviews the published evidence regarding clinical evaluation and efficacy of available procedural interventions for PWB and IH and offers a practical approach based on that data.


Port-wine birthmarks Port-wine stain Hemangioma Laser Pulsed dye PDL Nd:YAG Alexandrite 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyNaval Medical Center Camp LejeuneCamp LejeuneUSA
  2. 2.Uniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.St. Luke’s University Health NetworkEastonUSA

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