Advertisement

Introduction: Democracy, Innovation and Growth

  • Francesco GrilloEmail author
  • Raffaella Y. Nanetti
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter starts from acknowledging the crisis that has trapped much of the West in a condition of stagnation of ideas about how to govern complexity and slow productivity growth in an era of Internet driven disruptive changes. The focus moves to the two paradoxes which are central to the book. The “innovation paradox” underlines how the Internet revolution has not displayed its impact on growth when its effects are expected to be even larger than those of previous industrial revolutions, while the “democracy paradox” points to many signals of the crisis of legitimacy and effectiveness that liberal democracies have suffered since 1989 when they were declared historically the winners against Communism. The thesis that this book engages with is that this second, the “democracy paradox” is at the very root of the first, the “innovation paradox”. The argument is that the solution to both paradoxes is to be found in radically innovating the mechanisms through which diffused intelligence and individual preferences within civil society are identified, leveraged and processed into collective choices and policies to be formulated and implemented. Such a governance system is referred to as “knowledge democracy” and such innovative mechanisms as “smart participation”. Together, they signal the departure from the traditional implementation of the concept of democracy which appears no longer adequate in this XXI century. China and Italy are empirically investigated in the book as text cases of the current opposite position of the West and the East in growth performance.

Keywords

Democracy Smart participation Economic growth Democracy paradox Knowledge democracy 

Bibliography

  1. Acemoglu, D., et al. (2014). “Return of the Solow Paradox? IT, Productivity and Employment in US Manufacturing.” American Economic Review, 104(5): 394–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akkerman, T., de Lange, S., and Rooduijn, M. (Eds.). (2016). Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties in Western Europe. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Arrow, K. (1963). Social Choice Theory (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barber, B. (1995). “Searching for Civil Society.” National Civic Review, 84(2): 114–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benjamin, W. (1936). L’œuvre d’art à l’époque de sa reproduction mécanisée. Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, 5(1): 40–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bleicken, J. (1994). Die athenische Demokratie. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.Google Scholar
  7. Brynjolfsson, E. (1993). “The Productivity Paradox of Information Technology.” Communications of the ACM, 36(12): 66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cassese, S. (2017). La democrazia e I suoi limiti. Milan: Mondadori.Google Scholar
  9. Chomsky, N. (1965). Cartesian Linguistics. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  10. Churchill, W. (1947). Speech at the House of Commons, 11 November 1947.Google Scholar
  11. Coggan, P. (2013). The Last Vote. The Threats to Western Democracy. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  12. Dahl, R. A. (1989). Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Delogu, C. J. (2014). Tocqueville and Democracy in the Internet Age. Michigan: Michigan Publishing.Google Scholar
  14. Deloitte. (2018). The Chance to Lead for a Decade.Google Scholar
  15. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Drezner, D. W. (2007). All Politics Is Global. Explaining International Regulatory Regimes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dunn, J. (1993). Western Political Theory in the Face of the Future. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Edelman, R. (2018). 2018 Edelman Trust Barometer.Google Scholar
  19. Eder, W. (1998). “Aristocrats and the Coming of Athenian Democracy.” Democracy, 2500: 105–140.Google Scholar
  20. Eliot, T. S. (1969). Choruses from “The Rock” (1934). ELIOT, TS the Complete Poems and Plays of TS Eliot (pp. 147–150). London: Faber.Google Scholar
  21. Emmott, B. (2017). The Fate of the West: The Battle to Save the World’s Most Successful Political Idea. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
  22. Felice, D. (Ed.). (1998). Leggere L’Esprit des Lois. Napoli: Liguori Editore.Google Scholar
  23. Frey, C. B., and Osborne, M. A. (2017). “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114: 254–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fukuyama, F. (1989). “The End of History?” The National Interest, 16: 3–18.Google Scholar
  25. Goldin, I., and Kutarna, C. (2017). Age of Discovery: Navigating the Storms of Our Second Renaissance. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  26. Giugni, M., and Grasso, M. (Eds.). (2016). Austerity and Protest. Popular Contention in Times of Economic Crisis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Goodman, D. C., and Chant, C. (1999). European Cities and Technology. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gordon, R. J. (2000). “Does the “New Economy” Measure Up to the Great Inventions of the Past?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(4): 49–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grasso, M. (2016). Generations, Political Participation and Social Change in Western Europe. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Grillo, F. (2001). “From Catastrophe to Global Governance?” Open Democracy, 24 October 2001.Google Scholar
  31. Grillo, F., and Nanetti, R. (2016). Innovation, Democracy, Efficiency: Exploring the Innovation Puzzle Within the European Union’s Regional Development Policies. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Grossman, L. K. (1995). The Electronic Republic: Reshaping Democracy in the Information Age. New York: Viking Penguin.Google Scholar
  33. Hansen, M. H. (1996). “The Ancient Athenian and the Modern Liberal View of Liberty as a Democratic Ideal.” Ancient Greek Democracy: Readings and Sources, 171–184.Google Scholar
  34. Hegel, G. W. F. (1807). “Hegel’s Preface to the Phenomenology of Spirit” (Y. Yovel, Ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press (2004).Google Scholar
  35. Reinsel, D., Gantz, J., and Rydning, J. (2017). The Evolution of Data to Life—Critical. Don’t Focus on Big Data; Focus on Data That’s Big. Framingham, MA: International Data Corporation.Google Scholar
  36. Jones, T. (2002). Modern Political Thinkers and Ideas: A Historical Introduction. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kopstein, J., Lichbach, M., and Hanson, S. E. (Eds.). (2014). Comparative Politics: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in a Changing Global Order (4th ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Krugman, P. (2009). The Return of Depression Economics. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  39. Krugman, P., and Venables, A. (1995). “Globalization and the Inequality of Nations.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 4: 857–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Levitsky, S., and Ziblatt, D. (2018). How Democracies Die. New York: Crown Publishing.Google Scholar
  41. Lucas, R. E. (1993). “Making a Miracle.” Econometrica, 61: 251–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lucas, R. E. (2001). Lectures on Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Luce, E. (2017). The Retreat of Western Liberalism. How Democracy Is Defeating Itself. Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  44. Margetts, H. (2003). Electronic Government: A Revolution in Public Administration. Handbook of Public Administration, 366–376.Google Scholar
  45. Moore, G. (1965). “Moore’s Law.” Electronics Magazine, 38(8): 114.Google Scholar
  46. Nicolaidis, K. (1999). “European Democracy and Its Crisis.” Journal of Common Market Studies, 51(2): 351–369.Google Scholar
  47. OECD. (2018). A Broken Social Elevator? How to Promote Social Mobility.Google Scholar
  48. Piketty, T. (2017). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Pirenne, H. (1969). Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Popper, K. R. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Vienna: Verlag von Julius Springer.Google Scholar
  51. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  52. Putnam, R. D. (2015). Our Kids. The American Dream in Crisis. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  53. Romer, P. M. (1986). “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth.” Journal of Political Economy, 94(5): 1002–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Roser, M. (2018). “Global Economic Inequality.” Oxford Martin Programme on Global Development. https://ourworldindata.org/global-economic-inequality.
  55. Sahu, G. P. (Ed.). (2009). E-government Development and Diffusion: Inhibitors and Facilitators of Digital Democracy: Inhibitors and Facilitators of Digital Democracy. Pennsylvania: IGI Global.Google Scholar
  56. Sartori, G. (1992). Seconda Repubblica? Milano: Rizzoli.Google Scholar
  57. Sartori, G. (1994). Comparative Constitutional Engineering. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Schumpeter, J. (1983 [1911]). The Theory of Economic Development, New Brunswick.Google Scholar
  59. Schwab, K. (2017). The Fourth Industrial Revolution. New York: Crown Business.Google Scholar
  60. Sen, A. K. (1970). “The Impossibility of a Paretian Liberal.” Journal of Political Economy, 78(1): 152–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sen, A. K. (1984). Collective Choice and Social Welfare (2nd ed.). New York: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  62. Sen, A. K. (1999). “Democracy as a Universal Value.” Journal of Democracy, 10(3): 3–17.  https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1999.0055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shapiro, E. (2018). “Point: Foundations of E-Democracy Considering the Possibility of Achieving an E-Democracy Based on Long-Established Foundations that Strengthen both Realworld Democracies and Virtual Internet Communities.” Communications of the ACM, 61(8): 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Summers, L. (2014). U.S. Economic Prospects-Keynote Address at the NABE Conference.Google Scholar
  65. The Economist. (2014). “Modi’s Mission—Reviving India’s Economy”, 24 May.Google Scholar
  66. Thorley, J. (1996). Athenian Democracy. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tilly, C. (2004). Contention and Democracy in Europe, 1650–2000. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  68. UNESCO. (2005). Towards Knowledge Societies. UNESCO World Report.Google Scholar
  69. Van Venterghem, M. (2018). “Riots, Low Ratings … Where Did It All Go Wrong for Emmanuel Macron?” The Guardian, 28 November 2018.Google Scholar
  70. Wilson, E. J. III. (2004). The Information Revolution and Developing Countries. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  71. Zielonka, J. (2017). Counter-Revolution: Liberal Europe in Retreat. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sant’Anna School of Advanced StudiesPisaItaly
  2. 2.University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations