Test 8

  • Michael Paddock
  • Amaka C. Offiah


As previously discussed, acute and/or healing rib fractures may be visualised on chest radiography performed for other indications, which is why vigilance and recognition of these appearances as healing fractures is vital.


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Further Reading

Image 10

  1. Awolaran OT (2015) Radiographic signs of gastrointestinal perforation in children: a pictorial review. Afr J Paediatr Surg 12(3):161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell DJ, Klaassen K et al (2018) Urachus sign. Accessed June 2018
  3. Bell DJ, Tran T et al (2018) Telltale triangle sign. Accessed June 2018
  4. Epelman M, Daneman A, Navarro OM et al (2007) Necrotizing enterocolitis: review of state-of-the-art imaging findings with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 27(2):282–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Sharma R, Jones J et al (2018) Pneumoperitoneum. Accessed June 2018
  6. Sharma R, Khadar O, Thabet MA et al (2018) Inverted “V” sign (pneumoperitoneum). Accessed June 2018
  7. Skandhan AKP, Weerakkody Y et al (2018) Necrotising enterocolitis. Accessed June 2018

Image 12

  1. Offiah AC, Burke D (2018) The diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional imaging for detecting acute scaphoid fractures in children: a systematic review. Br J Radiol 91(1086):20170883CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Image 15

  1. Torchia M, Taylor B et al (2018) Proximal Humerus Fractures. Accessed June 2018

Image 16

  1. Glick Y, Bickle I et al (2018) Triple bubble sign. Accessed May 2018
  2. Weerakkody Y, Salam H et al (2018) Jejunal atresia. Accessed May 2018

Image 24

  1. Smithuis R (2018) Elbow – fractures in children. Accessed June 2018

Image 25

  1. Arundel P, Ahmed SF, Allgrove J et al (2012) British Paediatric and Adolescent Bone Group’s position statement on vitamin D deficiency. BMJ 345:e8182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheema JI, Grissom LE, Harcke HT (2003) Radiographic characteristics of lower-extremity bowing in children. Radiographics 23(4):871–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gaillard F, Sheikh Z et al (2018) Rickets (mnemonic). Accessed June 2018
  4. Kleinman PK, Sarwar ZU, Newton AW et al (2009) Metaphyseal fragmentation with physiologic bowing: a finding not to be confused with the classic metaphyseal lesion. AJR Am J Roentgenol 192(5):1266–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Paddock
    • 1
  • Amaka C. Offiah
    • 2
  1. 1.Sheffield Teaching HospitalsSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Academic Unit of Child Health, Department of Oncology and MetabolismUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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