A Continuous and Differentiable Mechanical Model of Muscle Force and Impedance
No single muscle model exists that has the same mechanical impedance and force development properties as biological muscle. It is essential to develop a muscle model with the same force limitations and impedance as biological muscle, especially for predictive simulations, as these properties are taken into account when choosing a posture for a specific task. We propose a mechanics-based muscle model that has the same impedance and force development properties as biological muscle by making a small topology change that turns titin, an enormous viscoelastic protein, from acting in parallel to the cross-bridges to acting in series with the cross-bridges.
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