Advertisement

Green Wedges: The Resilience of a Planning Idea

  • Fabiano Lemes de OliveiraEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Cities and Nature book series (CITIES)

Abstract

This chapter examines the development of a planning idea that has made its mark in manifold formats since its inception in the early twentieth century: the green wedge idea. The central argument theorises that the green wedge idea has morphed into different urban models aimed at answering fundamental planning questions to date. Initially, it presents precedents of planning for a balanced relationship between the city and nature. The chapter then shows how the idea emerged in discussions related to how modern cities should be planned to ensure access to nature. The contrast between the green wedge idea and that of the green belt is posed. In the sequence, the chapter analyses the green wedge models derived from the initial idea, namely the belt–wedge, the polycentric city and the corridor–wedge. Finally, the chapter argues that the green wedge idea adapted through time and space, responding to planning culture and to the needs of cities and regions. The resilience of this planning idea suggests that green wedges can adapt and, in so doing, contribute to respond to our contemporary challenges of urban growth, the need for intra-urban quality green spaces and the quest for urban sustainability.

References

  1. Abercrombie P (1945) Greater London plan, 1944: a report prepared on behalf of the standing conference on London regional planning. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Abercrombie P, Forshaw J (1943) County of London Plan prepared for the LCC. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Benevolo L (1967) The origins of modern town planning. Routledge and Kegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Cervero R, Sullivan C (2011) Green TODs: marrying transit-oriented development and green urbanism. Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol 18:210–218.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2011.570801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colton T (1995) Moscow: governing the socialist metropolis. Harvard University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Domhardt KS (2012) The garden city idea in the CIAM discourse on urbanism: a path to comprehensive planning. Plan Perspect 27:173–197.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02665433.2012.646768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eberstadt R (1910) Handbuch des Wohnungswesens und der Wohnungsfrage. Verlag Von Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  8. Eberstadt R (1911) Town Planning in Germany: the Greater Berlin Competition. In: RIBA (ed) Town planning conference, London, 10–15 Oct 1910. Transactions. RIBA, London, pp 313–333Google Scholar
  9. Freestone R (1986) Exporting the garden city: metropolitan images in Australia, 1900–1930. Plan Perspect 1:61–84.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02665438608725613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freestone R (2003) Greenbelts in City and regional planning. In: Parsons K, Shuyler D (eds) From Garden City to Green city: the legacy of Ebenezer Howard. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 67–98Google Scholar
  11. Geddes P (1915) Cities in evolution. Revised edn. Williams & Norgate, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Gibberd F (1947) Harlow New Town: a plan prepared for the harlow development corportation. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. GLRPC (1929) First report of the greater London regional planning committee. Greater London Regional Planning Committee, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. GLRPC (1933) Second report of the greater London regional planning committee. Greater London Regional Planning Committee, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Hall P (1982) Urban and regional planning, 2nd edn. Allen & Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Hall P (1996) Cities of tomorrow: an intellectual history of urban planning and design in the twentieth century. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Hegemann W (1911) Discussion. In: RIBA (ed) Town planning conference, London, 10–15 Oct 1910. Transactions. RIBA, London, p 239Google Scholar
  18. Knowles RD (2012) Transit oriented development in Copenhagen, Denmark: from the finger plan to Ørestad. J Transp Geogr 22:251–261.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.01.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lanchester HV (1908) Park systems for great cities. Build 343–348Google Scholar
  20. Lanchester HV (1911) Cause and effect in the modern city. In: RIBA (ed) Town planning conference, London, 10–15 Oct 1910. Transactions. RIBA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Lanchester HV (1941) An architect’s view of reconstruction: the large city. Build 161:569–570Google Scholar
  22. Langen G (1927) Stadtplan und Wohnungsplan vom hygienischen Stadtpunkte. Verlag von S, Hirzel, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  23. Larkham PJA (2011) The post-war reconstruction planning of London: a wider perspective’. Working paper series no. 8. Birmingham City University, BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  24. Laugier MA (1755) Essay on architecture. T. Osborne and Shipton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Lemes de Oliveira F (2014) Green wedges: origins and development in Britain. Plan Perspect 29:357–379.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02665433.2013.824369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lemes de Oliveira F (2015) Abercrombie’s green-wedge vision for London: the County of London Plan 1943 and the Greater London plan. Town Plann Rev 86:495–518.  https://doi.org/10.3828/tpr.2015.30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lemes de Oliveira F (2017) Green wedge urbanism: history, theory and contemporary practice. Bloomsbury, London, New York. http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/green-wedge-urbanism-9781474229203/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mawson TH (1911) Public parks and gardens: their design and equipment. In: RIBA (ed) Town planning conference, London, 10–15 Oct 1910. Transactions. RIBA, London, pp 434–450Google Scholar
  29. Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works (1971) Planning policies for the Melbourne metropolitan region, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  30. Nicholas R (1945) City of Manchester plan, prepared for the City council. Norwich and LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Osborn FJ, Whittick A (1969) The new towns: the answer to megalopolis. [2nd] revised and reset edn. Leonard Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Perry C (1929) the neighborhood unit: from the regional survey of New York and its environs. Neighborhood and community planning, vol VII. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Purdom CB (1949) The building of satellite towns: a contribution to the study of town development and regional planning, New edn. J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Robinson CM (1911) Cities of the present as representtive of a transition period in urban development—the evidence of standardised streets. In: RIBA (ed) Town planning conference, London, 10–15 Oct 1910. Transactions. RIBA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Schneider JB (1981) Transit and the Polycentric city. University of Washington, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  36. South East Economic Planning Council (1967) A strategy for the South East: a first report by the South East economic planning council. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Stockholm County Council (2010) Regional development plan for the Stockholm region—RUFS 2010. Stockholm County Council, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  38. Stockholms Stad (1952) Generalplan för Stockholm. StockholmGoogle Scholar
  39. Stübben J (1890) Der Städtebau. Handbuch der Architektur. Vieweg, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  40. Sutcliffe A (1981) Towards the planned city: Germany, Britain, the United States and France 1780–1914. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  41. The State of Victoria (2014) Plan Melbourne. MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  42. Trystan Edwards A (1943) A Plan for ‘Greater London’. Build 128–129Google Scholar
  43. Tubbs R (1942) Living in cities. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. United Nations (2016) Draft outcome document of the United Nations Conference on housing and sustainable urban development (Habitat III). United Nations, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  45. Wagner M (1915) Das sanitäre grün der Städte: ein Beitrag zur FreiflächentheorieGoogle Scholar
  46. Ward S (1992) The Garden city: past, present and future. Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Portsmouth School of ArchitectureUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK

Personalised recommendations