Perspectives on Green: Recent Urbanisation Works and Measures in Brazil and India

  • Fabiana Izaga
  • José Guilherme SchutzerEmail author
  • Komali Kantamaneni
Part of the Cities and Nature book series (CITIES)


The current study intends to explore green infrastructure issues in recent urbanisation works and measures employed in informal contexts and peripheral areas in Brazil, in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and in climate-vulnerable areas in India, in the cities of Vijayawada and Guntur (Andhra Pradesh), highlighting the difficulties that arise in their implementation process and also considering their social inequalities. In São Paulo, we will focus on urbanisation works that deal with urban drainage, undertaken by the local municipality and the state’s government (Tietê Meadows Park). In Rio de Janeiro, we will analyse urban projects for two bus rapid transit (BRT Transoeste and Transcarioca) lines that are a part of the recent works in public transport launched by Rio’s municipality in the context of the preparation of the city to host big international events. In India, the selected cities were Vijayawada and Guntur that are strongly affected by the escalation of the social and environmental vulnerabilities tied to climate change, such as cyclones that have great impacts on the low-income population. We approach scales that are often divergent or opposite, typical of cities in developing countries, which underwent a vertiginous demographic and territorial growth in the past century and will continue to grow in the present. We search to envisage aspects and contexts in which concepts of green infrastructure were or are being incorporated, outlining their complexity and the public administration inertia when it comes to intervene in urban spaces. Despite the geographical distance that separates Brazil and India, and all their great sociocultural differences, in what it regards urbanisation works and measures and the environment it seems that both countries would be going through similar issues, where there is a foundational gap between practices from the past and discourses towards the future.


  1. Ahern J (2007) Green infrastructure for cities: the spatial dimension. In: Novotny V, Brown P (eds) Cities of the future towards integrated sustainable water and landscape management. IWA Publishing, LondresGoogle Scholar
  2. Arendt H (1975) Entre o passado e o futuro. São Paulo, PerspectivaGoogle Scholar
  3. Benedict MA, Mcmahon ET (2002) Green infrastructure: smart conservation for the 21st Century. Renew Resour J 12. (Bethesda, RNRF)Google Scholar
  4. Bhagat RB (2011) Emerging pattern of urbanisation in India. Econ Polit Wkly 10–12Google Scholar
  5. Bick IA, Bardhan R, Beaubois T (2018) Applying fuzzy logic to open data for sustainable development decision-making: a case study of the planned city Amaravati. Nat Hazards 91:1317–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I, Wisner B (2014) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Cervero R et al (2013) Planning and design for sustainable urban mobility—global report on human settlements. United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. City Disaster Management Plan (2015) Vijayawada city disaster management plan. Available at
  9. Cutter SL et al (2015) Global risks: pool knowledge to stem losses from disasters. Nature 522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DAEE—Departamento de Águas e Energia Elétrica de São Paulo (2011) Parque Várzeas do Tietê. (sem data) Apresentação em PPT cedida à Fundação Tide Setubal para apresentação à comunidade Jd. Lapenna. São Paulo. Disponível em.
  11. Ghadei MA (2017) A city reborn, journey towards a world-class smart city. In: International congress and exhibition” sustainable civil infrastructures: innovative infrastructure geotechnology”. Springer, pp 15–29Google Scholar
  12. Halgamuge MN, Nirmalathas T (2017) Analysis of large flood events: based on flood data during 1985–2016 in Australia and India Int J Disaster Risk ReductGoogle Scholar
  13. Herce M (2007) L’espai urbà de la mobilitat. Ediciones UPC, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  14. IBGE—Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2017) Censo Demográfico 2010. Disponível em
  15. IDB—Inter-American Development Bank (2018) Operational policy OP 710—involuntary resettlement. Reference Document: GN-1979-3, July 1998. Available in,6660.html
  16. IFC—International Finance Corporations (2012) Performance standard 5: guidance note 5—land acquisition and involuntary resettlement. World Bank Group, 32 p. 1 Jan 2012. Available in
  17. ITDP—Instituto de Políticas de Transporte & Desenvolvimento (2008) Manual de BRT—Bus rapid transit: guia de planejamento. Available at
  18. Izaga F (2014) BRT in Rio de Janeiro – transformations and urban mobility. III ENANPARQ, São Paulo, 2014. Available at Accessed on 28 Oct 2017
  19. Kato S, Ahern J (2008) Learning by doing’: adaptive planning as a strategy to address uncertainty in planning. J Environ Plan Manag 51(4):543–559. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Available in
  20. Lister NM (2007) Sustainable large parks: ecological design or designer ecology? In: Hargreaves G, Czerniak J (eds) Large parks. Architectural Press, New York, pp 35–54Google Scholar
  21. Magalhães S, Izaga F (2017) Cidade Brasileira do século XXI Demografia, moradia e ocupação do território: uma avaliação urbanística. In: Vitruvius. Available at: Accessed Jan 2017
  22. Marea C, Rojas P, Thais (2014) Acciones para el mejoraramiento de la movilidad urbana sostenible: caso Metro de Maracaibo. In: Revista dos transporte públicos – ANTP. Ano 36, 1ro quadrimestre 2014, no 136. ANTP, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  23. Mell I (2016) Global green infrastructure. Routledge, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Naveh Z (2001) Ten major premises for a holistic conception of multifunctional landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 57:269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. New JR, Cahill N, Stover J, Gupta YP, Alkema L (2017) Levels and trends in contraceptive prevalence, unmet need, and demand for family planning for 29 states and union territories in India: a modelling study using the family planning estimation tool the lancet. Glob Health 5:e350–e358Google Scholar
  26. Prakash G, Anand E (2016) Indian news media and natural calamities: case of Chennai floods. Int J Multidiscip Approach Stud 3Google Scholar
  27. Ramuje K, Rao BNM (2015) Hudhud cyclone—a severe disaster in Visakhapatnam. Int J Res Eng Technol 3:156–163Google Scholar
  28. Rao K, Rao VV, Dadhwal V, Diwakar P (2014) Kedarnath flash floods: a hydrological and hydraulic simulation study. Curr Sci 106:598–603Google Scholar
  29. Ratna KN, Mohanty M (2017) Some characteristics of southwest monsoon rainfall over urban entries in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. MAUSAM 68:51–66Google Scholar
  30. Santos M (1990) Metrópole corporativa fragmentada: o caso de São Paulo. São Paulo, NobelGoogle Scholar
  31. São Paulo—PMSP (2012) Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (RIMA) do Parque Linear Ribeirão Perus. SIURB, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  32. São Paulo—PMSP (2014) Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (RIMA) da Readequação da Bacia Hidrográfica do Córrego Zavuvus. SIURB/ Consórcio LBR–Hagaplan–Geosonda, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  33. São Paulo—PMSP (2015a) Estudo de Impacto Ambiental e Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (EIA-RIMA) das obras de controle de inundações da Bacia do Córrego dos Freitas. SIURB/Ampliari, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  34. São Paulo—PMSP (2015b) Estudo de Impacto Ambiental e Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (EIA-RIMA) das obras de controle de inundações da Bacia do Córrego Tremembé. SIURB/Ampliari, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  35. São Paulo—PMSP (2016a) Caderno de bacia hidrográfica: Córrego Morro do S. Fundação Centro tecnológico de Hidráulica (org). SIURB/FCTH, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  36. São Paulo—PMSP (2016b) Caderno de bacia hidrográfica: Córrego Mandaqui. Fundação Centro tecnológico de Hidráulica (org). SIURB/FCTH, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  37. São Paulo—Prefeitura do Município de São Paulo-PMSP (2011) Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (RIMA) da canalização do Córrego Ponte Baixa e implantação do sistema viário paralelo à Av. M’Boi Mirim. SIURB/Geotécnica, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  38. Schutzer JG (2012) Cidade e Meio Ambiente: a apropriação do relevo no desenho ambiental urbano. EDUSP, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  39. Sharma U, Patwardhan A, Parthasarathy D (2009) Assessing adaptive capacity to tropical cyclones in the East coast of India: a pilot study of public response to cyclone warning information. Clim Change 94:189–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Skymetweather (2016) Flood in Andhra Pradesh’s Guntur claims 8 lives, rain fury to continue. Available at Accessed on 18 Aug 2017
  41. Steiner F, Thompson G, Carbonell A (2016) Nature and cities, the ecological imperative in urban design and planning. The Lincoln Institute of Land PolicyGoogle Scholar
  42. Sturzaker J, Mell I (2017) Green Belts, past; present; future?. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Suzuki H, Cervero R, Iuchi K (2013) Transforming cities with transit. Transit and land-use integration for sustainable urban development. The World Bank, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Transportation Department, City Administration of Rio de Janeiro (2014, appud Izaga, F. 2014)Google Scholar
  45. Vilaça F (1998) Espaço intra-urbano no Brasil. Studio Nobel, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  46. World Bank (2001) Operational policies OP 4.12 involuntary resettlement. Operating manual. Dec 2001. Available in
  47. World Bank (2015) Leveraging Urbanization in India. Available at Accessed on 20 Oct 2017

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabiana Izaga
    • 1
  • José Guilherme Schutzer
    • 2
    Email author
  • Komali Kantamaneni
    • 3
  1. 1.Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Graduate Program on Urbanism (PROURB/UFRJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.School of City, Architecture and UrbanismSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Research, Innovation and Enterprise (Maritime, Technology and Environment), Solent UniversitySouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations