Advertisement

Re-naturing the City for Health and Wellbeing: Green/Blue Urban Spaces as Sites of Renewal and Contestation

  • Mary GeareyEmail author
  • Lynette Robertson
  • Jamie Anderson
  • Paula Barros
  • Deborah Cracknell
Chapter
Part of the Cities and Nature book series (CITIES)

Abstract

Widening citizen access to green/blue spaces is of critical importance to public health and for the socio-political sustainability of future cities. Using examples of empirical research from the global north, the UK, and the global south, Brazil, this chapter considers how ‘re-naturing the city’ approaches address these nested concerns. Focusing on four types of green/blue infrastructure: urban wetlands, landscaped urban squares, public aquariums and green wedges, we explore the beneficial and adverse impacts which these environments can have on human health and wellbeing, and discuss implications for social and environmental justice within widely differing global contexts. We find considerable overlap between the two countries in the potential of green/blue infrastructure to promote health and wellbeing and to support social justice considerations. However, in the case of Brazil we consider the potential negative consequences of human–nature connectivity, using virus transmissions by infected mosquitoes as representative of the challenges of green/blue infrastructure expansion.

References

  1. Alex S (2008) Projeto da praça: convívio e exclusão no espaço público. Senac, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrade LT (2007) Singularidade e igualdade nos espaços públicos. Revista do Arquivo Público Mineiro 43(2):12–127Google Scholar
  3. Arnold M, Shinew K (1998) The role of gender, race, and income on park use constraints. J Park Recreat Adm 16:39–56Google Scholar
  4. Barros P (2010) The contribution of design in sustaining social activities in central urban squares within large cities: the case of Belo Horizonte. Oxford Brookes University, ThesisGoogle Scholar
  5. Bickerdike L, Booth A, Wilson PM et al (2017) Social prescribing: less rhetoric and more reality; a systematic review of the evidence. BMJ Open 7:013384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carr S et al (1992) Public space. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Cavia R, Cueto GR, Sua´rez OV (2009) Changes in rodent communities according to the landscape structure in an urban ecosystem. Landsc Urban Plan 90:1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ceretti-Ju´nior W, Medeiros-Sousa AR, Bruno Wilke AB et al (2015) Mosquito Faunal Survey In a central park of the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Am Mosquito Contr Assoc 31:1726Google Scholar
  9. CfAD (Center for Active Design) (2018) Fitwel. Certification System. https://fitwel.org/about
  10. Cook M (2017) Vacating the floodplain: urban property, engineering, and floods in brisbane (1974–2011). Conservation and Society 15(3):344Google Scholar
  11. Cracknell D, White MP, Pahl S, Nichols WJ, Depledge MH (2015) Marine biota and psychological wellbeing: a preliminary examination of dose-response effects in an aquarium setting. Environ Behav 48:1242–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cronon W (1996) The trouble with wilderness: or, getting back to the wrong nature. Environ Hist 1(1):7–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dooling S (2012) Sustainability planning, ecological Gentrification and the production. In: Cities, nature and development: the politics and production of urban vulnerabilities, p 101Google Scholar
  14. EC (European Commission): European Parliament (2004) Directive 2004/35/EC. Environmental LiabilityGoogle Scholar
  15. Egorov AI, Mudu P, Braubach M, Martuzzi M (eds) (2016) Urban green spaces and health. WHO Regional Office for Europe, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  16. Elias K (2017) What the Zika epidemic means for gender and urban adaptation planning in Brazil, São Paulo. Nat Cities. Accessed 24 Nov 2017. https://www.thenatureofcities.com/2017/11/24/zika-epidemic-means-gender-urban-adaptation-planning-brazil/
  17. Falk JH, Heimlich J, Bronnenkant K (2008) Using identity-related visit motivations as a tool for understanding adult zoo and aquarium visitor’s meaning making Curator. Musm J 51:55–79Google Scholar
  18. Foster J (2011) From E. coli to Weil’s disease, the perils of outdoor swimming and how to avoid them. The Daily Mail. Available from: http://www.dailymailcouk/health/article-2015434. Accessed 18 July 2011
  19. Friedli L, Jackson C, Abernethy H, Stansfield J (2017) Social prescribing for mental health—a guide to commissioning and delivery. Guidance published by CSIP North West Social Prescribing Development Project. http://www.centreforwelfarereform.org/library/by-az/social-prescribing-for-mental-health.html. Accessed 1st Nov 2017
  20. Gascon M, Zijlema W, Cristina V, White MP, Mark J, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ (2017) Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: a systematic review of quantitative studies. Int J Hyg Environ Health 220:1207–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. GFA (Green Flag Award) UK (2018). http://www.greenflagaward.org.uk/about-us/. Accessed Mar 2018
  22. Gonçalves FM (2002) Discussões sobre o papel dos espaços livres públicos nos bairros de elite contemporâneos. Paisagem e ambiente: ensaios 2:9–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haase D, Kabisch S, Haase A, Andersson E, Banzhaf E, Baró F, Brenck M, Fischer LK, Frantzeskaki N, Kabisch N, Krellenberg K, Kremer P, Kronenberg J, Larondelle N, Mathey J, Pauleit P, Ring I, Rink D, Schwarz N, Wolff M (2017) Greening cities—to be socially inclusive? About the alleged paradox of society and ecology in cities. Habitat Int 64:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Isin EF (ed) (2008) Recasting the social in citizenship. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  25. IWBI (International WELL Building Institute) (2018) The well community standard (Pilot). Delos. https://www.wellcertified.com/en/resources/well-community-standard-pilot. Accessed 2nd Mar 2018
  26. Jennings V, Johnson Gaither C, Schulterbrandt Gragg R (2012) Promoting environmental justice through urban green space access: a synopsis. Environ Justice 5:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koch R, Latham A (2011) Rethinking urban public space: accounts from a junction in West London. Trans Inst Br Geogr 37(4):515–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee JH, Scott D, Floyd MF (2001) Structural inequalities in outdoor recreation participation: a multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. J Leis Res 33:427–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lemes de Oliveira F (2017) Green wedge urbanism; history, theory and contemporary practice. Bloomsbury Academic, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lennon M, Douglas O, Scott M (2017) Urban green space for health and wellbeing: developing an ‘affordances’ framework for planning and design. J Urban Des 22(6):778–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Low S, Taplin D, Scheld S (2009) Rethinking urban parks: public space and cultural diversity. University of Texas Press, TexasGoogle Scholar
  32. Markevych I, Schoierer J, Hartig T, Chudnovsky A, Hystad P, Dzhamboy AM, Fuertes E (2017) Exploring pathways linking greenspace to health: theoretical and methodological guidance. Environ Res 158:301–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Massey DB, Allen J, Pile S (eds) (1999) City worlds. Psychology Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Medeiros-Sousa AR, Ceretti-Ju´nior W, de Carvalho GC et al (2015) Diversity and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban park: larval habitats and temporal variation. Acta Trop 150:2009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A (2009) Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Crit Rev Microbiol 35:22170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mitchell R, Popham F (2008) Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. Lancet 372:1655–1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Montana JL, Alexander SK, Olimb LS, Restani M (2016) Use of least-cost path analysis to identify potential movement corridors of swift foxes. J Mammal 97(3)9:891–898Google Scholar
  38. Natural England (2015) Green bridges; a literature review. Commissioned Report NECR181. First published 27 July 2015Google Scholar
  39. Natural England (2017) Green infrastructure—valuation tools assessment. Commissioned Report NECR126. First published 27 Sept 2013Google Scholar
  40. Oliveira AL, Mascaró JJ (2007) Análise da qualidade de vida urbana sob a ótica dos espaços públicos de lazer. Ambiente Construído 7:59–69Google Scholar
  41. Packer J, Ballantyne R (2002) Motivational factors and the visitor experience: a comparison of three sites. Curator 45:183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Perry T, Matsui E, Merriman B, Duong T et al (2003) The prevalence of rat allergen in inner-city homes and its relationship to sensitization and asthma morbidity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:34652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. PG (Prefeitura de Goiania) (2018) Online material. http://www4.goiania.go.gov.br/portal/pagina/?pagina=noticias&s=1&tt=not&cd=8545&fn=true. Accessed 2nd Mar 2018
  44. Radhuber IM (2012) Indigeneous struggles for a plurinational state: an analysis of indigeneous rights and competences in Bolivia. J Lat Am Geogr 1(2):167–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Robba F, Macedo SS (2003) Praças brasileiras. Edusp, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  46. Roberts D, Boon R, Diederichs N, Douwes E, Govender N, McInnes A, Spires M (2012) Exploring ecosystem-based adaptation in Durban, South Africa; “learning-by-doing” at the local government coal face. Environ Urban 24(1):167–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Russell RC (1999) Constructed wetlands and mosquitoes: health hazards and management options an Australian perspective. Ecol Eng 12:10724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smith C, Buckley N, Bridges E, Pavitt B, Moss A (2018) Self-reported impacts of volunteering in UK zoos and aquariums. Cult Trends 27:18–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Swyngedouw E (2016) The mirage of the sustainable ‘smart’ city: Planetary urbanization and the spectre of combined and uneven apocalypse. In: Nel-lo O, Mele R (eds) Cities in the 21st Century. Routledge, London, pp 134–143Google Scholar
  50. Traweger D, Slotta-Bachmayr L (2005) Introducing GIS-modelling into the management of a brown rat (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) (Mamm. Rodentia Muridae) population in an urban habitat. J Pest Sci 78:1724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Traweger D, Travnitzky R, Moser C (2006) Habitat preferences and distribution of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in the city of Salzburg (Austria): implications for an urban rat management. J Pest Sci 79:11325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Völker S, Matros J, Claßen T (2016) Determining urban open spaces for health-related appropriations: a qualitative analysis on the significance of blue space. Environ Earth Sci 75:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Walthamstowe Wetlands (2017) https://walthamstowwetlands.com/. Accessed 14th Dec 2017
  54. Wheeler BW, White M, Stahl-Timmins W, Depledge MH (2012) Does living by the coast improve health and wellbeing? Health Place 18:1198–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wolch JR, Byrne J and Newell JP (2014) Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: the challenge of making cities ‘just green enough’. Landscape Urban Plann 125:234–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Woodberry Wetlands (2017) http://www.woodberrywetlands.org.uk/. Accessed at 14th Dec 2017

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Gearey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lynette Robertson
    • 2
  • Jamie Anderson
    • 3
  • Paula Barros
    • 4
  • Deborah Cracknell
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Environment and TechnologyUniversity of BrightonBrightonUK
  2. 2.Mackintosh School of Architecture, Glasgow School of ArtGlasgowUK
  3. 3.Urban Institute, School of Environment, Education and DevelopmentUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  4. 4.Department of Projects, School of ArchitectureUFMG (Federal University of Minas Gerais)Belo HorizonteBrazil
  5. 5.School of PsychologyUniversity of Plymouth, European Centre for Environment and Human Health and University of Exeter Medical SchoolPlymouthUK

Personalised recommendations