EMG Map for Designing the Electrode Shape for Functional Electrical Therapy of Upper Extremities

  • Lana Popović-ManeskiEmail author
  • Ivan Topalović
Conference paper
Part of the Biosystems & Biorobotics book series (BIOSYSROB, volume 21)


Achieving the functional grasp by electrical stimulation using surface electrodes is a demanding task. The innervations of muscles come via ulnar, radial and median nerves. The anatomy of nerve branches connecting various muscles in the forearm differs significantly between individuals. We hypothesize that the anatomical differences between the paretic and nonparetic arms are minimal. Based on this assumption we developed a method where the differences of muscle activities (EMG) between the healthy and paretic arms recorded by the 24-contact electrode within an array define the target zones to be stimulated on the affected forearm. We used special electrode where magnetic contacts allow simple change of the stimulation pads. The examiner positions the magnetic contact on the pads where the EMG differences are maximal. The stimulator delivers asynchronous stimulation to the selected pads. We proved that the method is working in stroke patients by measuring joint angles and the grasping force.


EMG map Functional electrical stimulation Multi-pad electrode Stroke Reaching and grasping 



We thank the company “mBrainTrain,” Belgrade for allowing us to use Smarting amplifiers and the company “Tecnalia Serbia,” Belgrade for providing us with the array electrodes for EMG recordings. We thank clinicians from the Clinic for rehabilitation “Dr. Miroslav Zotović,” Belgrade and Dejan B. Popović for the overall assistance.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and ArtsBelgradeSerbia

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