The Use of CT Scans and 3D Modeling as a Powerful Tool to Assist Fossil Vertebrate Taxonomy

  • George TheodorouEmail author
  • Yiannis Bassiakos
  • Evangelos Tsakalos
  • Evyenia Yiannouli
  • Petros Maniatis
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11196)


3D scans and 3D modeling are used to assist the taxonomy of a new unique fossil specimen of an elephant maxilla with molars heavily eroded by coastal sea waves, encrusted in extremely hard sediment, making the preparation and measurements with classical digital calipers impossible. The elephant fossil has been collected north of Poros on the coast at SE Kephallenia in consolidated fan- conglomerates and sands. The elephant maxilla is the first significant elephant fossil from Kephallenia and all the Ionian Islands. According to its dimensions and characteristics it is attributed to a new endemic island species, Elephas cephallonicus that lived isolated from the mainland 104.2 ± 18.5 ka ago. The existence of an island endemic specimen at this period in Kephallenia is in full accordance with the palaeogeographic evolution of the Ionian Islands, which is strongly indicated by the natural climatic changes during the last hundred thousand years. The Elephas cephallonicus became extinct possibly during the last ice age.


CT scans and 3D modeling Kephallenia Greece Elephas cephallonicus n. sp 



The authors would like to thank the University of the Peloponnese, The Institute for Field Research (UCLA), the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and its Research Account and Evangelia Tsipra and Petros Moschuris of Kosntantopouleio Hospital, who helped us open new horizons for Vertebrate Palaeontology in Greece. Particular thanks are due to Dionysia Liakopoulou for work on the digital documentation of the find.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Theodorou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yiannis Bassiakos
    • 2
  • Evangelos Tsakalos
    • 2
  • Evyenia Yiannouli
    • 3
  • Petros Maniatis
    • 4
  1. 1.National Kapodistrian Univeristy of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Insitute of Nanoscience and NanotechnologyNCSR, DemokritosAthensGreece
  3. 3.Maritime Archaeology LaboratoryUniversity of the PeloponneseKalamataGreece
  4. 4.CT and Interventional DepartmentKonstantopouleio HospitalAthensGreece

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