Advertisement

Challenges on Normative Emotional Agents

  • Karen Y. Lliguin
  • Vicente Botti
  • Estefania Argente
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10767)

Abstract

Most people’s choices, including economic ones, are largely based on normative-affective considerations, not only with regard to the selection of goals but also of means. However, although emotions are inherent in human behaviour, and they are also relevant when dealing with the decision making processes, the relationship between norms and emotions has hardly been considered in the agent field, and most normative multi-agent systems do not take emotions into account, as a variable for their computation. In this paper, we analyse the advantages of including emotions in a normative system, how emotions and norms affect to each other and the work done in this field so far. To do this, we (1) identify and describe the relationships between emotions and norms; (2) review the state of art of normative emotional agents; and (3) discuss future directions for research in this field.

Keywords

Normative MAS Emotion Multi-agent system Affective agent Norm 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Spanish Government projects TIN2014-55206-R and TIN2017-89156-R.

References

  1. 1.
    Etzioni, A.: Normative-affective factors toward a new decision-making model. J. Econ. Psychol. 9, 125–150 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bagozzi, R.P., Pieters, R.: Goal-directed emotions. Cogn. Emot. 12(1), 1–26 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Posner, E.: The regulation of solidary groups: the influence of legal and nonlegal sanctions on collective action. Univ. Chicago Law Rev. 63, 99–133 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Criado, N., Argente, E., Botti, V.: Open issues for normative multi-agent systems. AI Commun. 24(3), 233–264 (2011)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boella, G., van der Torre, L., Verhagen, H.: Introduction to the special issue on normative multiagent systems. J. Auton. Agents Multi Agent Syst. 17, 1–10 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boella, G., van der Torre, L., Verhagen, H.: Introduction to normative multiagent systems. In: Normative Multi-agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, vol. 07122 (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    von Wright, G.H.: Deontic logic. In: Logical Studies, pp. 58–74 (1957)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rubino, R., Sartor, G.: Preface. J. Artif. Intell. Law 16(1), 1–5 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elster, J.: Social norms and economic theory. J. Econ. Perspect. 3(4), 99–117 (1989)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tuomela, R.: The Importance of Us. Stanford University Press, Stanford (1995)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dignum, F.: Autonomous agents with norms. J. Artif. Intell. Law 7(1), 69–79 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boella, G., van der Torre, L.: Substantive and procedural norms in normative multiagent systems. J. Appl. Logic 6(2), 152–171 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Savarimuthu, B.T.R., Cranefield, S.: Norm creation, spreading and emergence: a survey of simulation models of norms in multi-agent systems (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Peng, Y.B., Gao, J., Ai, J.Q., Wang, C.H., Guo, H.: An extended agent BDI model with norms, policies and contracts. In: 2008 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, WiCOM 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rodriguez, L.F., Ramos, F.: Development of computational models of emotions for autonomous agents: a review. Cogn. Comput. 6(3), 351–375 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ortony, A., Clore, G.L., Collins, A.: The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1990)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frijda, N.H., Kuipers, P., Ter Schure, E.: Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 57(2), 212–228 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roseman, I.J., Spindel, M.S., Jose, P.E.: Appraisals of emotion-eliciting events. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 59(5), 899–915 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hudlicka, E.: Guidelines for designing computational models of emotions. Int. J. Synth. Emot. 2(1), 26–79 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marsella, S., Gratch, J., Petta, P.: Computational models of emotion. In: Blueprint for Affective Computing: A Source Book. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lin, J., Spraragen, M., Zyda, M.: Computational models of emotion and cognition. Adv. Cogn. Syst. 2, 59–76 (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marsella, S.C., Gratch, J.: EMA: a process model of appraisal dynamics. Cogn. Syst. Res. 10(1), 70–90 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Russell, J.A.: Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychol. Rev. 110(1), 145–172 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Russell, J.A., Mehrabian, A.: Evidence for a three-factor theory of emotions. J. Res. Pers. 11(3), 273–294 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mehrabian, A.: Pleasure-arousal-dominance: a general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament. Curr. Psychol. 14(4), 261–292 (1996)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Becker-Asano, C., Wachsmuth, I.: Affective computing with primary and secondary emotions in a virtual human. Auton. Agents Multi Agent Syst. 20(1), 32–49 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gebhard, P.: ALMA: a layered model of affect. In: 4th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 29–36 (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Alfonso, B.: Agents with affective traits for decision-making in complex environments. Ph.D. thesis, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain (2017)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bordini, R.H., Hbner, J.F.: Jason, manual, release 0.7 edition, August 2005. http://jason.sf.net/
  30. 30.
    Ekman, P.: Basic emotions. In: Handbook of Cognition and Emotion, pp. 45–60. Wiley, New Jersey (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Velasquez, J.D.: Modeling emotions and other motivations in synthetic agents. In: 14th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and 9th Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, pp. 10–15. AAAI Press (1997)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Staller, A., Petta, P.: Introducing emotions into the computational study of social norms: a first evaluation. J. Artif. Soc. Soc. Simul. 4(1), U27–U60 (2001)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ferreira, N., et al.: Generating norm-related emotions in virtual agents. In: Nakano, Y., Neff, M., Paiva, A., Walker, M. (eds.) IVA 2012. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 7502, pp. 97–104. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33197-8_10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Joffily, M., Masclet, D., Noussair, C.N., Villeval, M.C.: Emotions, sanctions and cooperation. South. Econ. J. 80(4), 1002–1027 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Elster, J.: Rationality and the emotions. Econ. J. 106(438), 1386–1397 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fix, J., von Scheve, C., Moldt, D.: Emotion-based norm enforcement and maintenance in multi-agent systems: foundations and petri net modeling. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 105–107 (2006)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Staller, A., Petta, P.: Towards a tractable appraisal-based architecture for situated cognizers. In: Grounding Emotions in Adaptive Systems, Workshop Notes of 5th International Conference of the Society for Adaptive Behaviour (SAB 1998), pp. 56–61 (1998)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Huber, M.J.: JAM: a BDI-theoretic mobile agent architecture. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Seattle, pp. 236–243 (1999)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bazzan, A.L.C., Adamatti, D.F., Bordini, R.H.: Extending the computational study of social norms with a systematic model of emotions. In: Bittencourt, G., Ramalho, G.L. (eds.) SBIA 2002. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2507, pp. 108–117. Springer, Heidelberg (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-36127-8_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Von Scheve, C., Moldt, D., Fix, J., von Luede, R.: My agents love to conform: norms and emotion in the micro-macro link. Comput. Math. Organ. Theory 12(2–3), 81–100 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ahmad, A., Ahmad, M.S., Mohd Yusoff, M.Z., Ahmed, M.: Formulating agent’s emotions in a normative environment. In: Lukose, D., Ahmad, A.R., Suliman, A. (eds.) KTW 2011. CCIS, vol. 295, pp. 82–92. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32826-8_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ahmad, A., Ahmad, M.S., Mohd Yusoff, M.Z., Mustapha, A.: A novel framework for normative agent-based systems. In: MJCAI (2009)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dias, J., Paiva, A.: Feeling and reasoning: a computational model for emotional characters. In: Bento, C., Cardoso, A., Dias, G. (eds.) EPIA 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3808, pp. 127–140. Springer, Heidelberg (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11595014_13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Conte, R., Castelfranchi, C.: Understanding the functions of norms in social groups through simulation. In: Artificial Societies: The Computer Simulation of Social Life, pp. 252–267. UCL Press (1995)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pankov, A., Dastani, M.: Towards a formal specification of moral emotions. In: 2nd International Workshop on Emotion and Sentiment in Social and Expressive Media: Opportunities and Challenges for Emotion-Aware Multiagent Systems, vol. 1351, pp. 3–18, May 2015Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y ComputaciónUniversitat Politècnica de ValènciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations