• Viktor Matejčík
  • Zora Haviarová
  • Roman Kuruc
  • Andrej Šteňo
  • Juraj Šteňo


Some variability in certain dimensions, form, structure, and position is natural for the human body and internal organs. Simply said, it is tolerated and part of natural variability.



The authors would like to express their gratitude to Anna Francová for her help with the illustrations and preparation of this book.

Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Figures of intraspinal variations of nerve roots were obtained by careful dissection and within the forensic expertise with the approval of the Ethics Committee ASHC, Grösslingova 5, 812 62 Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

All studies related to intraspinal variations of nerve roots were made with the written consent of the competent bodies and in accordance with all applicable standards, rules, regulations, and laws and supervised by the responsible officials.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viktor Matejčík
    • 1
  • Zora Haviarová
    • 2
  • Roman Kuruc
    • 3
  • Andrej Šteňo
    • 1
  • Juraj Šteňo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.Institute of AnatomyComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  3. 3.The Health Surveillance AuthorityBratislavaSlovakia

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