An Assessment of Environmental Impact on Agriculture in the Indus Delta Pakistan

  • Gohar Ali MaharEmail author
  • Nayyer Alam Zaigham
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


The agriculture sector in Pakistan is still the country backbone. Indus Delta was historically recognized as fertile land but the present study revealed that the severe kind of water-flow and sediment discharge from River Indus to the Deltaic area has changed the situation and deteriorated the greatest part of the agricultural land in the delta. Earlier, during the 1980s, the water flow condition of the Indus River used to be good. The finding related to the land degradation and its impact on the agricultural sector has been compiled and analyzed. (i) The results show that a large area has been submerged by the sea invasion, causing about 26% of the land of six coastal administrative units (Talukas) unusable (ii) The data collected for the period of 1998–99 to 2007–08 show extreme losses in cultivable area and more than 80% of the land was abandoned. (iii) The data collected for the same period related to the yield of rice, sugarcane and sesame also show a declining trend. (iv) Based on a survey conducted in the region, the annual earning of a farmer’s family was estimated to be only $ 2 US per day. If enough water were supplied to the delta for agricultural and coastal areas or sea then the situation will be improved.


Indus delta Cultivated land Indus River Degradation Sea intrusion 


  1. Ahmed, F.: Freshwater resources of Indus Delta eco-region: forever Indus. In: Proceedings of the Consultative Workshop on Indus Delta 260 Eco-region (IDER), WWF Pakistan, pp. 17–36 (2004) Google Scholar
  2. Brohi, S.: Livelihood resources downstream Kotri barrage and their degradation: Indus flow downstream Kotri Barrage Need orWastage, pp. 1–16. SZABIST Center for information & research, Karachi, Pakistan (2003)Google Scholar
  3. D.C.O.: Land eroded by sea in the coastal Talukas of district Thatta, unpublished record of survey in 2000, 5p, District coordination office, District Thatta, Government of Sindh, Pakistan (2000)Google Scholar
  4. Kahlown, M.A., Majeed, A.: Water resources situation in Pakistan. Challenges Future Strat.: COMSATS Sci. Vis. Q. 7(3) & (4), 46–49 (2002)Google Scholar
  5. Khan, T.M.A., Razzak, D.A., Qamar-uz-zaman, CH., Abdul Quadir, D. Anwarul-kabir, Sarker, M.A.,. Sea level variations and geomorpho-logical changes in the coastal belt of Pakistan. Marine Geodesy 25,159–174 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kravtsova, V.I., Mikhailov, V.N., Efremova, N.A.: Variations of the hydrological regime, morphological structure, and landscapes of the Indus river delta (Pakistan) under the effect of large scale water management measures. Water Resour. 36(4), 365–379 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mahar, G.A., Geomorphic Degradation of Indus Delta and Its Geomorphic Impact, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi (2010)Google Scholar
  8. Memon, A.A.: Devastation of Indus river delta. In: Proceedings of the World Water & Environmental Resources Congress, American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resource Institute, Anchorage, Alaska (2005)Google Scholar
  9. Qureshee, M.T: Neglected coastal ecosystem of Indus delta. In: Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Mangrove Ecosystem Dynamics of the Indus Delta, collaborated by Sindh Forest and Wildlife department and World Bank, pp. 9–18 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. Salik, K.M: Hashmi, M.Z.R, Waheed-ul-Zafar: Environmental flow requirements and impacts of climate change-induced river flow changes on ecology of the Indus Delta, Pakistan. Reg. Study Mar.Sci. 71, 185–195 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Well, J.T., Coleman, J.M: Deltaic morphology and sedimentology, with special reference to the Indus river delta. In: Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan, pp. 85–100. Van Nostrand Company Scientific and Academic Editions (1984)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and TechnologyKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.GeoEnvo TechServices (GETS)KarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations