The Political Dynamics and Impacts Surrounding Subic Naval Base in the Philippines

  • Ayae ShimizuEmail author
Part of the Springer Polar Sciences book series (SPPS)


The Philippines hosted U.S. military bases until their closure in 1992. Subic Naval Base, the largest among them, was regarded as the most important for the security of the Asia-Pacific region. Olongapo, the city adjacent to the base, was heavily impacted by the presence of the base. The people of Olongapo continually protested the negative impacts they suffered due to the existence of the base. This sub-state actor did not directly participate in any negotiation with the U.S. government for its autonomy, but the local voice was strongly manifested in anti-base movements, and they had a pervasive influence on the negotiations between Washington and Manila over U.S. military bases. In this chapter, I explore the issues Olongapo faced, how its people raised a voice of opposition, and how that local voice ultimately facilitated the withdrawal of the U.S. military forces from the Philippines.


Philippines Sub-state actor Subic naval base U.S. military bases Autonomy 


  1. Baker, A. P. 2004. American soldiers overseas: The global military presence, 111–113. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  2. Bengzon, A. R. A. 1997. A matter of honor: The story of the 1990–91 RP-US bases talks. Manila: Anvil Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Calder, K. E. 2007. Embattled garrisons: Comparative base politics and American globalism, 83–90. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Cooley, A. 2008. Base politics: Democratic change and the U.S. military overseas, 66. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  5. De Castro, R. C. 2003. The revitalized Philippine-US security relations: A ghost from the cold war or an Alliance for the 21st century? Asian Survey 43 (6).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mahan, A. T. 1906. The influence of sea power upon history, 1660–1783. Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  7. Paez, P. A. 1985. Bases factor: Realpolitik of RP-US relations, 452. Manila: Center for Strategic and International Studies of the Philippines.Google Scholar
  8. Sandars, C. 2000. America’s overseas garrisons: The leasehold empire, 110. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Yeo, A. 2011. Activists, alliances, and anti-U.S. base protests, 39–40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Institute of International AffairsTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations