Base Politics and the Hold-up Problem

  • Shinji KawanaEmail author
Part of the Springer Polar Sciences book series (SPPS)


In this chapter, we will consider the conditions under which local actors exercise political influence on their governments as part of base politics during peacetime in democratic states. A factor that destabilizes bases in democratic states is the “vulnerability” of host governments. Vulnerability is as a function of substitutability, urgency, and specificity. The greater the importance of a particular base for the government, the greater its vulnerability vis-à-vis local political actors, and the higher the risk that it will be “held up” by them. However, as the government knows the incentives for opportunism among these local actors, it will aim to integrate, institutionalize, and distribute the base transactions in order to avoid a hold-up.


Vulnerability Substitutability Urgency Specificity Integration Institutionalization Distribution 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Liberal Arts, Tokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

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