Experimental and Numerical Performance Evaluation of Cement-Calcined Kaolin-River Sand-Clay Mixture as a Highway Material

  • E. Arinze EmmanuelEmail author
  • Ekeoma Emmanuel C. 
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


This study evaluated the performance of cement-calcined kaolin and river sand stabilized clayey soil classified as A-7-6(3) used for a subbase of a flexible pavement in other to achieve a cost effective and environmental friendly solution to high cost construction materials. The percentages of River sand and calcined kaolin used for stabilization ranged from 0 to 20%, while the percentages of cement were kept constant at 4 and 6%. An increase in percentage of Calcined Kaolin increased the percentage of the fines, while the increase in the percentage of the River sand led to an increase in coarseness of the soil. Atterberg limits of the soil decreased with the increase in the River Sand percentage for 4 and 6% cement, but increased with the increase in the Calcined Kaolin. The soil OMC decreased from 14.2 to 11.3% at the highest addition of the River sand (OMK20RS) at 4% cement while it increased progressively with the increase in the Calcined Kaolin up to 18.2%. Displacement of the pavement was reduced by about 98.8% when used to model subbase of pavement using Plaxis, therefore cement-calcined kaolin-River sand can be used effectively for subbase and subgrade of a pavement.


Calcined kaolin River sand Plaxis Soil stabilization Deformation 


  1. 1.
    Aboubakar, M.A., Ganjian, E., Pouya, H., Akashi, A.: A study on the effect the addition of thermally treated Libyan natural pozzolan has on the mechanical properties of ordinary Portland cement mortar. Int. J. Sci. Tech. 3(1), 79–84 (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alhassan, M., Mustapha, M.: Effect of rice husk ash (RHA) on cement stabilized laterite. Leonardo Electron. J. Practices Technol. (II), 47–58 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amu, O.O., Salami, B.A.: Effects of common salt on some engineering properties of egg shell stabilized lateritic soil. Asian Res. Publishing Netw. (ARPN) J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 5(9) (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ayininuola, G.M., Adekitan, O.A.: Compaction characteristics of lateritic soils stabilized with cement-calcined clay blends. J. Silic. Based Compos. Mater. (2017).
  5. 5.
    Bhatta, N.: Engineering properties of pond ash and pond ash sand mixtures. Indian Highways 49–59 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hossain, K.M.A.: Stabilized soils incorporating combinations of rice husk ash and cement kiln dust. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 23(9), 1320 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Justice, J.M.: Evaluation of calcined kaolins for use as supplementary cementitious materials, An unpublished M.Sc. thesis. School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kolovos, K.G., Asteris, P.G., Cotsovos, D.M., Badogiannis, E., Tsivilis, S.: Mechanical properties of soilcrete mixtures modified with calcined kaolin. Constr. Build. Mater. 47, 1026–1036 (2013). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Olonade, K.A., Jaji, M.B., Adekitan, O.A.: Experimental comparison of selected pozzolanic materials. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa, Dares Salaam, Tanzania, 27–29 Jan, pp. 309–314 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Das, S.K., Yudhbir, Y: Geotechnical properties of low calcium and high calcium fly ash. J. Geotech. Geol. Eng. 24, 249–263 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta, D., Kumar, A.: Performance evaluation of cement-stabilized pond ash-rice husk ash clay mixture as a highway construction material. J. Rock. Mech. Found. 2(3), 345–67 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Das, D.: Introduction to soil stabilization. (2016). Retieved from
  13. 13.
    Tannant, D.D., Regensburg, B.: Guidelines for Mine Haul Road Design, 1st edn. University of Alberta, Canada (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    McCarthy, M.J., Csetenyi, L.J., Sachdeva, A.., Jones, R.: Role of fly ash in the mitigation of swelling in lime stabilized sulphate bearing soils. In: Proceedings of World Coal Ash, USA (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lav, A.H., Lav., M.A., Goktepe, B.A.: Analysis and design of a stabilized fly ash as pavement base material. Fuel 85(16), 2359–2370 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringMichael Okpara University of AgricultureUmudikeNigeria
  2. 2.Research StudentDundee UniversityDundeeUK

Personalised recommendations