Portland Cement Exhaust Characterization and Its Potential Use in Mineral Carbon Sequestration

  • Freeman E. D. SenzaniEmail author
  • Antoine F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


Portland cement manufacturing produces, in its exhausts, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour, and argon. Significant amounts of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are therefore released into the atmosphere. For the purpose of minimizing the input of greenhouse and acid rain gases, ways of capturing the carbon dioxide by, for instance, mineral carbonation, are being investigated around the world. This study is a review of the masses of gases, their volumes, temperatures, and the heat energy they release. It forms the first step in determining ways for on-site carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide sequestration. The study shows that for a tonne of clinker, the masses of the gases produced, in tonnes, are 1.2 CO2 (63%), 0.004 SO2 (0.2%), 0.008 CO (0.4%), 0.0549 O2 (2.82%), 0.5 H2O (25.8%), 0.16 N2 (0.1%) and Ar 0.0028 (0.096%). The total volume of the gases leaving the stack, if the exit temperature is 300 °C, is 2.975 m3, but reaches 4.532 m3 at 600 °C, while the heat energy potentially available for downstream use, is 1272 and 1938 MJ, again at 300 and 600 °C, respectively. This is wasted heat energy that cement companies should use to capture the gases that have negative environmental consequences.


Cement Clinker Sequestration Mineral carbonation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Freeman E. D. Senzani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antoine F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi
    • 1
  1. 1.Mineral Processing Technology Research Centre, Department of Metallurgy, School of Mining Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built EnvironmentUniversity of JohannesburgDoornfonteinSouth Africa

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