Sinkhole Morphologies from Photogrammetry and Distinct Element Modeling—An Example from the Dead Sea
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Sinkholes are a high impact natural hazard common in karstic rocks worldwide. They show different morphologies depending on formation mechanisms and involved geologic materials. We performed high-resolution photogrammetric analysis at the sinkhole site of Ghor Al-Haditha, Jordan, and Distinct Element Modeling to investigate such morphological differences for two characteristic sinkhole types common at the Dead Sea. By geomechanical modelling we proved that a low-strength cover material promotes wide and flat sinkholes as observed in the former Dead Sea lakebed. A high-strength cover material favours narrow and deep sinkholes as observed in the alluvial fans of the former Dead Sea shorelines. The combination of both field measurements and numerical simulation improved our conceptual understanding of sinkhole formation important for assessment of this natural hazard.
KeywordsSinkholes Dead Sea Distinct element modeling Natural hazard Photogrammetry
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