Advertisement

The Roman Empire (443 BC to 395 AD)

  • Sangaralingam Ramesh
Chapter

Abstract

Not much has been written about the beginnings of Rome, because most historical records have not survived. Much of early Roman history has been pieced together from a combination of myth, records of scholars who were active many centuries after the collapse of the Roman Empire, and from the fragments of texts of scholars who were contemporary to Rome. The first of these include Titus Livius (59 BC to 17 AD) and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, his Greek contemporary. Both ancient scholars provide parallel accounts of early Rome until 443 BC, but after this year, only Titus Livius continued to do so.

Keywords

Roman Empire Ancient scholars Myth The Eastern Empire 

References

  1. Alcock, S. (2007), The Eastern Mediterranean, IN: The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Scheidel, W., Morris, I., Saller, R. (Eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Arena, V. (2012), Libertas and the Practice of Politics in the Late Roman Republic, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biagini, E. (1994), Roman Law and Political Control – from a Primitive Society to the Dawn of the Modern World, GeoJournal, 33.4, pp. 331–340.Google Scholar
  4. Buttle, N. (2001), Republican Constitutionalism: A Roman Ideal, The Journal of Political Philosophy, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 331–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byers, R., and Lord, E. (1943), Late Effects of Lead Poisoning on Mental Development, Am J Dis Child, 66(5), pp. 471–494.Google Scholar
  6. Cherry, D. (2007), The Frontier Zones, IN: The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Scheidel, W., Morris, I., Saller, R. (Eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  7. Cline, E. (2013), The Trojan War – A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conant, E. (1928), The Laws of the Twelve Tables, 13, St Louis L.Rev.231Google Scholar
  9. Cornell, T. (1995), The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000–264BC), Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  10. David, P. (1998), Common Agency Contracting and the Emergence of ‘Open Science’ Institutions. American Economic Review. 88:2, pp. 15–21.Google Scholar
  11. Davies, G. (2002a), From Primitive and Ancient Money to the Invention of Coinage, 3000–600BC, History of Money, University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  12. Davies, G. (2002b), The Development of Greek and Roman Money, 600BC–610AD, History of Money, University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  13. Derks, H. (2006), The Ancient Economy and its Countryside, The European Legacy, 11:5, pp. 541–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dmitriev, S. (2004), Traditions and innovations in the Reign of Aurelian, Classical Quarterly, 54.2, pp. 568–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duncan, M. (2016), The History of Rome – Volume 1: The Republic, Herodotus Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fenn, P. (1925), Justinian and the Freedom of the Sea, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 716–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flower, H. (2014), Preface, IN The Cambridge Companion to The Roman Republic, Flower, H. (Eds), Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Giardina, A. (2007), The Transition to Late Antiquity, IN: The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Scheidel, W., Morris, I., Saller, R. (Eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  19. Goodman, M. (1997), The Roman World, 44BC–AD 180. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Gruen, E. (1974), The Last generation of the Roman Republic, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  21. Hopkins, K. (1978), Conquerors and Slaves, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  22. Keaveney, S. (2005), The Last Republican: Sulla, Routledge, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keppie, L. (1998), The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
  24. Kessler, D., and Temin, P. (2005), Money and Prices in the Early Roman Empire, Working Paper 05–11, MIT.Google Scholar
  25. Kessler, D., and Temin, P. (2007), The organisation of the Grain Trade in the early Roman Empire, Economic History Review, 60, 2, pp. 313–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Korn et al. (2006), Separation and preconcentration procedures for the determination of lead using spectrometric techniques: A Review, Talanta, 69, pp. 16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leveau, P. (2007), The Western Provinces, IN: The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, Scheidel, W., Morris, I., Saller, R. (Eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Lintott, A. (1999), The Constitution of the Roman Republic, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  29. Lomas, K. (2017), The Rise of Rome, 1000 BC to 264 BC, Profile Books Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  30. Mackay, C. (2004), Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  31. McCarty, N. (2008), Rome – The Greatest Empire of the Ancient World, The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Millar, F. (1986), Politics, Persuasion and the People before the Social War, Journal of Roman Studies, lxxvi, pp. 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moatti, C. (2015), The Birth of Critical Thinking in Republican Rome, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mouritsen, H. (2004), Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  35. Nicolet, C. (1980), The World of the Citizen in Republican Rome, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  36. Frank, P. (2004), Philosophy of Science: The Link Between Science and Philosophy, Dover Publications Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Morgan, J. (2012), The Roman Empire, Fall of the West: Survival of the East, AuthorHouse, Bloomington, USA.Google Scholar
  38. Raaflaub, K. (2006), Between Myth and History: Rome’s Rise from Village to Empire (the eighth century to 264), IN: A Companion to the Roman Republic, Rosenstein, N., and Morstein-Marx, R. (Eds), Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, USA.Google Scholar
  39. Robinson, D. (1926), Roman Sculptures from Colonia Caesarea (Pisidian Antioch), The Art Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 4–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rosenstein, N. (2009), War, State Formation, and the Evolution of Military Institutions in Ancient China and Rome, IN Rome and China: Comparative Perspectives on Ancient World Empires, Scheidel, W. (Ed), Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  41. Sahay, A. (2005), Review Essay: Managing Innovation and Technology, The Journal of Business Perspectives, Vol. 9, No. 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Scott-Kilvert, I. (1979), The Rise of the Roman Empire, Polybius; translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert; selected with an Introduction by F.W. Walbank, Penguin Classics, Harmondsworth.Google Scholar
  43. Shapiro, M. (1981), Courts: A Comparative and Political Analysis, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  44. Tainter, J. (1988), The Collapse of Complex Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  45. Temin, P. (2001), A Market Economy in the Early Roman Empire, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 91, pp. 169–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Temin, P. (2004a), Financial Intermediation in the Early Roman Empire, The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 705–733.Google Scholar
  47. Temin, P. (2004b), The Labour Market of the Early Roman Empire, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, XXXIV:4, pp. 513–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Temin, P. (2006), The Economy of the Early Roman Empire, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 133–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thapar, R. (1988), Epigraphic evidence and some Indo-Hellenistic contacts during the Mauryan period, in Maity, S.K., and Thakur, U. (eds.), Indological Studies, Prof. D. C. Sircar Commemoration Volume, New Delhi, pp. 15–19.Google Scholar
  50. Thapar, R. (1992), Black Gold: South Asia and the Roman Maritime Trade, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies,15:2, pp. 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thompson, E. (1982), Romans and Barbarians – The Decline of the Western Empire, The University of Madison Press, Madison, USA.Google Scholar
  52. Vervaet, F. (2004), The ‘Lex Valeria’ and Sulla’s Empowerment as Dictator (82–79BCE), Cahiers du Centre Gustave Glotz, Vol. 15, pp. 37–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ward-Perkins, B. (2005), The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilisation, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  54. Wilson, A. (2002), Machines, Power, and the Ancient Economy, Journal of Roman Studies. 92, pp. 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wiseman, T. (1998), Roman Republic Year One, Greece & Rome, Vol. XLV, No. 1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sangaralingam Ramesh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department for Continuing EducationUniversity of Oxford, Rewley HouseOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations