Tracing the Evolution of Hypersaline Coastal Groundwaters in Kuwait: An Integrated Approach

  • Chidambaram SabarathinamEmail author
  • Harish Bhandary
  • Asim Al Khalid
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


Hypersaline (HS) coastal groundwaters along the Kuwaiti shoreline were identified by collecting samples along the Kuwait Bay and along the open sea coast. Out of the 28 collected samples, 9 samples were considered as hypersaline considering the salinity of the Kuwaiti sea water. They were mostly of Na–Cl facies and the ratios of the different elements to Cl were studied to determine their source and nature. Few HS samples were acidic, and it was observed that these samples have representation of sulfides. The PHREEQC model reveals that the pO2 values in the acidic samples were lesser. The mole values of CaSO4 and the saturation states of Anhydrite and Gypsum were higher in these samples. The model was also attempted for temperature variations and it showed variations in pH, Ionic Strength and Saturation states. The statistical analysis of these HS waters reveals that the impact of desalination rejects, waste water and urban sewage, variation in water level of the aquifers and occurrence of H2S gas governs the hypersaline nature of the groundwaters along the coast.


Ion ratios Geochemical modeling Acidic pH Statistical analysis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chidambaram Sabarathinam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Harish Bhandary
    • 1
  • Asim Al Khalid
    • 1
  1. 1.WRC, Kuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchSafatKuwait

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