Phenol Formaldehyde Resin for Hydrophilic Cellulose Paper

  • Waqas Ahmed
  • Muhammad SagirEmail author
  • M. Suleman Tahir
  • Sami Ullah
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


Phenol formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting plastic which has been used for various applications. The important factor of its versatile use is its thermal stability, resistance to chemical attack and water resistance—which protect it from micro-organism attacks. The hydrophobic nature of phenol formaldehyde makes Kraft paper waterproof upon drying. This property decreases the cooling efficiency of cooling pads. Therefore, it is required to make phenol formaldehyde resin unaffected by the hydrophilic nature of paper. In the present work, phenol formaldehyde is being used to impregnate Kraft paper to make evaporative cooling pads. For this purpose, phenolic resin was synthesized with inorganic additives, at specific ratios and degree of polymerization, which allowed the paper to absorb water when it was impregnated with diluted resin. During the drying process, by evaporation of some volatile elements in phenolic resin, pores are created in the paper which allows it to absorb water. Solid contents of the synthesized samples were also determined. The coating on paper was examined after different time intervals to observe the solubility of the coated resin in water, which ensures the long-term protection of pads from microorganism attacks.



I would like to acknowledge the University of Gujrat for research assistance, Dr. Muhammad Sagir for his guidance and my Research Master Rana Javaid Anwar for his guidance throughout my practical research career, my best friend Aqeel Ahmed who supported me throughout my work.


  1. 1.
    Pizzi, A., Ibeh, C.C.: Phenol–formaldehydes. In: Dodiuk, H., Goodman, S.H. (eds.) Handbook of Thermoset Plastics, 3rd edn., pp. 13–44. William Andrew Publishing, Boston (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fink, J.K.: Phenol/formaldehyde resins. In: Fink, J.K (ed) Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edn., pp. 155–177. William Andrew Publishing, Oxford (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dabbagh, H.A., Shahraki, M.: Mesoporous nano rod-like γ-alumina synthesis using phenol–formaldehyde resin as a template. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 175, 8–15 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Handique, J.G., Baruah, J.B.: Polyphenolic compounds: an overview. React. Funct. Polym. 52(3), 163–188 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pilato, L.: Phenolic Resins: A Century of Progress. Springer, Berlin (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ullah, S., Bustam, M.A., Nadeem, M., Naz, M.Y., Tan, W.L., Shariff, A.M.: Synthesis and thermal degradation studies of melamine formaldehyde resins. Scientific World J. 6 (2014) (Article ID 940502)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu, C., Li, K., Li, H., Zhang, S., Zhang, Y.: The effect of zirconium incorporation on the thermal stability and carbonized product of phenol–formaldehyde resin. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 102, 180–185 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burmistr, M., Boiko, V., Lipko, E., Gerasimenko, K., Gomza, Y.P., Vesnin, R., Chernyayev, A., Ananchenko, B., Kovalenko, V.: Antifriction and construction materials based on modified phenol-formaldehyde resins reinforced with mineral and synthetic fibrous fillers. Mech. Compos. Mater. 50(2), 213–222 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ullah, S., Bustam, M.A., Ahmad, F., Nadeem, M., Naz, M.Y., Sagir, M., Shariff, A.M.: Synthesis and characterization of melamine formaldehyde resins for decorative paper applications. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 62, 182–190 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lenghaus, K., Qiao, G.G., Solomon, D.H.: The effect of formaldehyde to phenol ratio on the curing and carbonisation behaviour of resole resins. Polymer 42(8), 3355–3362 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ganeshram, V., Achudhan, M.: Synthesis and characterization of phenol formaldehyde resin as a binder used for coated abrasives. Indian J. Sci. Technol 6(6), 4814–4823 (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alamri, H., Low, I.M.: Mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy composites. Polym. Test. 31(5), 620–628 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Azwa, Z., Yousif, B., Manalo, A., Karunasena, W.: A review on the degradability of polymeric composites based on natural fibres. Mater. Des. 47, 424–442 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fernández-Costas, C., Gouveia, S., Sanromán, M., Moldes, D.: Structural characterization of Kraft lignins from different spent cooking liquors by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Biomass Bioenerg. 63, 156–166 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Obi Reddy, K., Uma Maheswari, C., Shukla, M., Muzenda, E.: Preparation, chemical composition, characterization, and properties of Napier grass paper sheets. Sep. Sci. Technol. 49(10), 1527–1534 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Figueiredo, A.B., Evtuguin, D.V., Monteiro, J., Cardoso, E.F., Mena, P.C., Cruz, P.: Structure–surface property relationships of kraft papers: implication on impregnation with phenol–formaldehyde resin. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50(5), 2883–2890 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waqas Ahmed
    • 1
  • Muhammad Sagir
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Suleman Tahir
    • 1
  • Sami Ullah
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan

Personalised recommendations