Modeling of Toluene and Benzene Concentrations in the Groundwater of Tanjero Waste Dump Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

  • Aras KareemEmail author
  • Omed Mustafa
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


Wastes are dumped in the main Tanjero landfill site from different sources, such as domestic waste and uncontrolled waste dumping from the refineries in the area. The BTEX complex has been recognized in the analyses of the groundwater sample in some wells around the Tanjero waste dump site. Benzene and toluene were the two main components with significant concentrations compared with the other components of BTEX. In this study, the variation in the concentration of benzene and toluene was simulated in different depths for 25 years. The modeling of the benzene and toluene scenario is correlated with regard to the climate conditions as well as physical and chemical conditions of the soil in the waste dump site. The contamination can reach the groundwater but in low concentration and inversely with the depth. Different phases of contaminants in the unsaturated zone in the subsoil show different rates of contamination, depending on the phase type (gas, liquid and solid). The contamination potentials of benzene and toluene are different in the rates, and toluene has more concentration in the liquid phase than benzene in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Benzene is attenuated more rapidly than toluene in this area. The current study aims to evaluate the potential impact of BTEX contamination on the groundwater.


BTEX Toluene Benzene Waste Tanjero area VLEACH 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sulaimani Polytechnic UniversitySulaimaniyahIraq
  2. 2.Charmo UniversityChamchamalIraq

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