Advertisement

Flipped Learning and Online Discussion in Higher Education Teaching

  • Branko Bognar
  • Marija SablićEmail author
  • Alma Škugor
Chapter

Abstract

In education, smart technology supports constructivist and student-centred learning. Various teaching approaches can be adopted in higher education context to provide smart learning pointing out adaptive teaching, learning analytics, collaborative learning, context-based learning, game-based learning and flipped learning. This study focuses on flipped learning and online discussions initiated in the online learning system Moodle. In the previous action research, we had determined benefits of online discussions such as freedom of expressing thoughts and feelings and possibility of participating at any suitable time in a friendly atmosphere. However, some problems were detected such as insufficient preparedness of students for selected topics. In this action research project, flipped learning preceded online discussions that were organized at the end of the course. The aim was to improve students’ preparedness for a discussion topic and engage them in active learning. We were aware that there was no new teaching method and no instant solutions. It is a way of thinking which includes teachers’ critical reflection. Therefore, we established a Moodle forum for a critical reflective discussion about teaching. This approach seems to be the key precondition for improving the quality of smart learning we tried to establish in our higher education context.

Keywords

Flipped learning Smart learning Higher education Online discussion Critical friendship 

References

  1. Arnold-Garza, S. (2014). The flipped classroom teaching model and its use for information literacy instruction. Communications in Information Literacy, 8(1), 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. Alexandria, VA: International Society for Technology in Education.Google Scholar
  3. Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2013/2014). The flipped classroom. CSE, 17(3), 24–27.Google Scholar
  4. Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. Bilić Meštrić, K., Đurić, T., & Ivančić, B. (2014). Teaching as a dialogue through critical friendship with students (an example of reflective practice). Život i škola [Life and School], 60(1), 160–175.Google Scholar
  6. Bishop, J., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. Atlanta: American Society for Engineering Education. Retrieved from https://peer.asee.org/22585
  7. Bognar, B. (2009). Ostvarivanje suštinskih promjena u odgojnoj praksi posredstvom akcijskih istraživanja [Conducting significant changes in educational practice through action research]. Odgojne znanosti [Educational Sciences], 11(2), 399–414.Google Scholar
  8. Bognar, B. (2015). Čovjek i odgoj [Human being and education]. Metodički ogledi [Methodical Review], 22(2), 9–37.  https://doi.org/10.21464/mo42.222.937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bognar, B. (2016). Kako do suštinskih promjena u obrazovnom sustavu? [How to achieve significant changes in the education system?]. In R. Jukić, K. Bogatić, S. Gazibara, S. Pejaković, S. Simel, A. Varga, & V. Campbell-Bar (Eds.), Zbornik znanstvenih radova s Međunarodne znanstvene konferencije Globalne i lokalne perspektive pedagogije [Conference proceedings book (academic papers), International Scientific Conference ‘Global and Local Perspectives of Pedagogy’] (pp. 324–334). Osijek, Croatia: Filozofski Fakultet Osijek, Sveučilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku.Google Scholar
  10. Bognar, B., Gajger, V., & Ivić, V. (2016). Constructivist e-learning in higher education. Croatian Journal of Education, 18(Sp.Ed.1), 31–46.  https://doi.org/10.15516/cje.v18i0.2221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bognar, B., & Krumes, I. (2017). Encouraging reflection and critical friendship in preservice teacher education. CEPS Journal, 7(3), 87–112. Retrieved from http://www.cepsj.si/pdfs/cepsj_7_3/pp_87-112.pdf
  12. Bognar, L., & Matijević, M. (2002). Didaktika [Didactics] (2nd improved ed.). Zagreb, Croatia: Školska knjiga.Google Scholar
  13. Boucher, B., Robertson, E., Wainner, R., & Sanders, B. (2013). “Flipping” Texas State University’s physical therapist musculoskeletal curriculum: Implementation of a hybrid learning model. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 27(3), 72–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa, A., & Kallick, B. (1993). Through the lens of a critical friend. Educational Leadership, 51(2), 49–51.Google Scholar
  15. Danker, B. (2015). Using flipped classroom approach to explore deep learning in large classrooms. The IAFOR Journal of Education, 3(1), 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Despotović-Zrakić, M., Marković, A., Bogdanović, Z., Barać, D., & Krčo, S. (2012). Providing adaptivity in Moodle LMS courses. Educational Technology & Society, 15(1), 326–338.Google Scholar
  17. Dukić, D. (2011). E-learning: Perceptions of students at the Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek. Informatologia, 44(2), 94–100.Google Scholar
  18. Dukić, D., & Mađarić, S. (2012). Online learning in Croatian tertiary education. Technical Journal, 6(1), 69–72.Google Scholar
  19. Durán-Sánchez, A., García, J. Á., Rama, D. R., & Sarango-Lalangui, P. (2018). Analysis of the scientific literature published on smart learning. Espacios, 39(10). Retrieved from http://www.revistaespacios.com/a18v39n10/18391007.html
  20. Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. TechTrends, 57(6), 14–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-013-0698-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fautch, J. M. (2015). The flipped classroom for teaching organic chemistry in small classes. Is It Effective?, Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 16(1), 179–186.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RP00230JCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goodyear, P., & Retalis, S. (2010). Learning, technology and design. In P. Goodyear & S. Retalis (Eds.), Technology-enhanced learning: Design patterns and pattern languages (pp. 1–27). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Haralambos, M., & Holborn, M. (2002). Sociologija: Teme i perspektive [Sociology: Themes and perspectives]. Zagreb, Croatia: Golden marketing.Google Scholar
  24. Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. London, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hattie, J. (2015a). The applicability of visible learning to higher education. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 1(1), 79–91.  https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hattie, J. (2015b). What doesn’t work in education: The politics of distraction. London, UK: Pearson.Google Scholar
  27. Kavanagh, L., Reidsema, C., McCredden, J., & Smith, N. (2017). Design considerations. In C. Reidsema, L. Kavanagh, R. Hadgraft, & N. Smith (Eds.), The flipped classroom: Practice and practices in higher education (pp. 15–35). Singapore: Springer Nature.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kember, D., Ha, T. S., Lam, B. H., Lee, A., NG, S., Yan, L., et al. (1997). The diverse role of the critical friend in supporting educational action research projects. Educational Action Research, 5(3), 463–481.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09650799700200036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Nixon, R. (2014). The action research planner: Doing critical participatory action research. Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim, B. H., & Oh, S. Y. (2014). A study on the SMART education system based on cloud and n-screen. Science and Education, 15(1), 137–143.Google Scholar
  31. Kim, T., Cho, J. Y., & Lee, B. G. (2013). Evolution to smart learning in public education: A case study of Korean public education. In T. Ley, M. Ruohonen, M. Laanpere, & A. Tatnall (Eds.), Open and social technologies for networked learning (pp. 170–178). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41(1), 30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kinshuk, Chen, N.-S., Cheng, I.-L., & Chew, S. W. (2016). Evolution is not enough: Revolutionizing current learning environments to smart learning environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), 561–581.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40593-016-0108-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 212–218.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Larrington, J. M., & Lihosit, J. (2013). Flipping the legal research classroom. Perspectives: Teaching Legal Research and Writing, 22(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  36. Leino, J., Tanhua-Piiroinen, E., & Sommers-Piiroinen, J. (2013). Learning with social technologies: Workplace learner experiences of wiki and blog and perceptions of PLE. In T. Ley, M. Ruohonen, M. Laanpere, & A. Tatnall (Eds.), Open and social technologies for networked learning (pp. 59–68). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liu, D., Huang, R., & Wosinski, M. (2017). Smart learning in smart cities. Singapore: Springer Nature.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lomax, P., Woodward, C., & Parker, Z. (1996). How can we help educational managers establish and implement effective ‘critical’ friendships? In P. Lomax (Ed.), Quality management in education: Sustaining the vision through action research (pp. 151–165). London, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Middleton, A. (2015). Smart learning: Teaching and learning with smartphones and tablets in post-compulsory education. Sheffield, UK: Media-Enhanced Learning Special Interest Group and Sheffield Hallam University.Google Scholar
  40. Morgan, K., Morgan, M., Johansson, L., & Ruud, E. (2016). A systematic mapping of the effects of ICT on learning outcomes. Oslo, Norway: Knowledge Center for Education.Google Scholar
  41. Norton, L. S. (2009). Action research in teaching and learning: A practical guide to conducting pedagogical research in universities. London, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paramythis, A., & Loidl-Reisinger, S. (2004). Adaptive learning environments and e-learning standards. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 2(1), 181–194.Google Scholar
  43. Pritchard, A., & Woollard, J. (2010). Psychology for the classroom: Constructivism and social learning. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Radenković, B., Despotović, M., Bogdanović, Z., & Barać, D. (2009). Creating adaptive environment for e-learning courses. Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences, 33(1), 179–189.Google Scholar
  45. Reason, P. (1994). Inquiry and alienation. In P. Reason (Ed.), Participation in human inquiry (pp. 9–15). London, UK: SAGE.Google Scholar
  46. Reed, J., & Stoll, L. (2000). Promoting organisational learning in schools – The role of feedback. In S. Askew (Ed.), Feedback for learning (pp. 127–143). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Reidsema, C., Hadgraft, R., & Kavanagh, L. (2017). Introduction to the flipped classroom. In C. Reidsema, L. Kavanagh, R. Hadgraft, & N. Smith (Eds.), The flipped classroom: Practice and practices in higher education (pp. 3–14). Singapore: Springer Nature.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Roehling, P. V. (2018). Flipping the college classroom. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. See, S., & Conry, J. M. (2014). Flip my class! A faculty development demonstration of a flipped-classroom. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 6(4), 585–588.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2014.03.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Srivastava, K. (2014). Role of flipped classroom in education. Paripex – Indian Journal of Research, 3(4), 81–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sung, M. (2015). A study of adults’ perception and needs for smart learning. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, (191), 115–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Uskov, V. L., Bakken, J. P., Penumatsa, A., Heinemann, C., & Rachakonda, R. (2018). Smart pedagogy for smart universities. In V. L. Uskov, R. J. Howlett, & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Smart education and e-learning 2017 (pp. 3–16). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Winter, R., & Munn-Giddings, C. (2001). A handbook for action research in health and social care. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Wolff, L.-C., & Chan, J. (2016). Flipped classrooms for legal education. Singapore: Springer Nature.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhu, Z., Yu, M., & Riezebos, P. (2016). A research framework of smart education. Smart Learning Environments, 3(4), 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-016-0026-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesJosip Juraj Strossmayer University of OsijekOsijekCroatia
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationJosip Juraj Strossmayer University of OsijekOsijekCroatia

Personalised recommendations