Advertisement

Systematics and Palaeo-Environmental Implications of Hexaprotodon Sivalensis (Hippopotamidae, Mammalia) from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Siwaliks (Pakistan)

  • Ayesha Iqbal
  • Abdul Majid KhanEmail author
  • Rana Manzoor Ahmad
  • Muhammad Akbar Khan
  • Muhammad Akhtar
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)

Abstract

The specimens discussed in this paper were collected from the Tatrot Formation of the Upper Siwaliks of Pakistan. The sample comprises isolated upper premolar, molars and a complete mandible. Based upon the comparative morphological affinities with the previously reported fossil material of Hippopotamidae from the Siwalik region, the newly recovered specimens are recognized as belonging to Hexaprotodon sivalensis. These samples showed differences both in morphology and size when compared to living Hippopotamus amphibius and Hexaprotodon liberiensis.

Keywords

Artiodactyla Hippopotamus Tatrot Pinjor Pliocene Pleistocene 

References

  1. 1.
    Barry, J.C., Morgan, M.E., Flynn, L.J., Pilbeam, D., Behrensmeyer, A.K., Raza, S.M., Khan, I.A., Badgley, C., Hicks, J., Kelley, J.: Faunal and environmental change in the late Miocene’s Siwaliks of Northern Pakistan. Paleobiology 18, 1–71 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boisserie, J.R., Zazzo, A., Merceron, G., Blondel, C., Ignaud, P., Likius, A., Mackaye, H.T., Brunet, M.: Diets of modern and late Miocene hippopotamids: evidence from carbon isotope composition and microwear of tooth enamel. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 221, 153–174 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Colbert, E.H.: Distributional and phylogenetic studies on Indian fossil mammals. IV. The phylogeny of the Indian Suidae and the origin of the Hippopotamidae. Am. Mus. Novit. 799, 1–24 (1935)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dennell, R.W., Coard, R., Turner, A.: The biostratigraphy and magnetic polarity zonation of the Pabbi Hills, northern Pakistan: an upper Siwalik (Pinjor stage) upper Pliocene-lower Pleistocene fluvial sequence. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 234(2), 168–185 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Htike, T.: Review on the taxonomic status of Hexaprotodon iravaticus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, and Hippopotamidae) from the Neogene of Myanmar. Shwebo Univ. Res. J. III(1) (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jansen, E., Sjøholm, J., Bleil, U., Erichsen, J.A.: Neogene and Pleistocene glaciations in the northern hemisphere and late Miocene–Pliocene global ice volume fluctuations: evidence from the Norwegian Sea. In: Geological history of the polar oceans: arctic versus antarctic, pp. 677–705. Springer, Dordrecht (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khan, M.A.: Hexaprotodon (Mammalia: Hippopotamidae) from the Pinjor Formation of Bhimber, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool. 50(2), 1367–1372 (2018)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pilbeam, D.R., Behrensmeyer, A.K. Barry, J.C., Shah, S.M.I.: Miocene sediments and faunas of Pakistan. 45 pp. Postilla. No. 179 (1979)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Quade, J., Cerling, T.E., Bowman, J.R.: Development of Asian monsoon revealed by marked ecological shift during the latest Miocene in northern Pakistan. Nature 342(6246), 163 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayesha Iqbal
    • 1
  • Abdul Majid Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rana Manzoor Ahmad
    • 1
  • Muhammad Akbar Khan
    • 1
  • Muhammad Akhtar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyQuaid-e-Azam Campus, University of the PunjabLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations