Middle Miocene Giraffokeryx (Giraffidae) with Marks of Enamel Hypoplasia from Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Muhammad Akbar KhanEmail author
  • Muhammad Asim
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


Giraffokeryx punjabiensis are ascribed from Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon (DBAK), district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan. The newly recovered material includes two maxillary fragments: three mandibular rami and seven isolated teeth. The preserved specimens enhance the knowledge about G. punjabiensis. It can be used as a reference material in the future. Some specimens show a clear sign of the enamel hypoplasia as a nutritional and ecological stress indicator for the middle Miocene giraffids of Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon. The existence of G. punjabiensis along with Dorcatherium and suid suggests the presence of wet meadows, floodplain and open woodland at the time of the middle Miocene deposition in Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon, Lower Siwalik Subgroup.


Giraffidae Ruminantia Siwaliks Palaeontology Taxonomy 


  1. 1.
    Solounias, N.: Family Giraffidae. In: The Evolution of Artiodactyls, vol. 257 (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khan, M.A., Akhtar, M., Irum, A.: Bramatherium (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia, Giraffidae) from the Middle Siwaliks of Hasnot, Pakistan: biostratigraphy and palaeoecology. Turk. J. Earth Sci. 23(3), 308–320 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhatti, Z.H., Khan, M.A., Akhtar, M.: Hydaspitherium (Artiodactyla, Giraffidae) from the Dhok Pathan Formation of the Middle Siwaliks, Pakistan: New Collection. Pak. J. Zool. 44(3), 799–808 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barry, J.C., Cote, S., MacLatchy, L., Lindsay, E.H., Kityo, R., Rajpar, A.R.: Oligocene and early miocene ruminants (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from Pakistan and Uganda. Palaeontol. Electron. 8(1), 1–29 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Colbert, H.: Distributional and phylogenetic studies on Indian fossil mannals II: the correlation of the Siwaliks of India as inferred by the migrations of Hipparion and Equus. in Am. Mus. Novitates. (1935). CiteseerGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barry, J.C., Morgan, M.L.E., Flynn, L.J., Pilbeam, D., Behrensmeyer, A.K., Raza, S.M., Khan, I.A., Badgley, C., Hicks, J., Kelley, J.: Faunal and environmental change in the late Miocene Siwaliks of northern Pakistan. Paleobiology 28(2 Supplement), 1–71 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cheema, I.U.: Phylogeny and evolution of Neogene murine rodents from the Potwar Plateau of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir with special emphasis on zoogeographic diversification and stratigraphic implications. University of the Punjab, Lahore (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gentry, A.W., Roessner, G.E., Heizmann, E.P.: Suborder Ruminantia. In: Rössner, G.E., Heissing, K. (eds.) The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe, pp. 225–258. Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München. (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pilgrim, G.E.: The Fossil Giraffidae of India. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India: Palaeontologia Indica, New Series. 4(1), 38.(1911)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colbert, E.H.: Siwalik mammals in the American Museum of Natural History. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 26. American philosophical Society (1935)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khan, M., Akhtar, M., Iqbal, M.: The late miocene artiodactyls in the dhok pathan type locality of the dhok pathan formation, the middle siwaliks, Pakistan. Pak. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 10, 1–90 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aftab, K., Khan, M.A., Babar, M.A., Ahmad, Z., Akhtar, M.: Giraffa (Giraffidae, Mammalia) from the lower siwaliks of Pakistan. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 26(3), 833–841 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dr. Abu Bakr Fossil Display & Research Centre, Department of ZoologyUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations