Cretaceous Paleodictyon Trace Fossils: Evolutionary Mimicry Tactic Versus Burrowing: Examples from the Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq

  • Kamal Haji KarimEmail author
  • Polla Azad Khanaqa
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


The present study is set out not only to discuss but also to propose possible new functions (origins) of Paleodictyon. This function is a kind of protection against predation and not related to food habit or burrowing as concluded in previous studies. The organism achieving this protection by making its shape and size resemble (mimic) hard corals to decisive attacker organism. This protective operation happens through the hard corals which are found in the same basin with the traces. The study attributes the origin of trace to the evolutionary mimicry by which the previous dispute about the origin of the paleodictyon will be improved or ended.


Paleodictyons Hexagonal coral Trace fossils Tanjero formation Zagros foreland basin Mimicry Organism camouflage Sandstone 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of SulaimaniSulaymaniyahIraq
  2. 2.Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific ResearchSulaymaniyahIraq

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