Potential Artisanal to Small Scale Cement Production Site Determination Using Qualitative Site Multifactor Analysis: Case Study—South Africa

  • Freeman SenzaniEmail author
  • Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


This study reviewed, captured, analyzed and synthesized all geochemical data of carbonate rocks in South Africa. It then applied the information to determine targets for small-scale cement manufacturing. So far, the geochemical data and the samples locations were not indicated in any open electronic database. In this investigation, the geographic locations were determined and coordinates entered into an electronic database, in which they were linked to the tables of geochemical data. Comparison with the oxide levels necessary for cement manufacture i.e., CaO (≥42%), MgO (≤4%), SiO2 (≤15%), Al2O3 + Fe2O3 (≤16%), silica ratio (SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3)) and Na2O + K2O (≤0.6%) were then conducted. Sites passing the geochemical tests were considered further after eliminating those locations further than 10 km from vital infrastructure namely roads, rail, electric power, water sources and human population clusters. Of the 709 sites identified, only four met the foregoing criteria used. These fall on the farms Wieduow 309DH, Syferfontein 457KR, Rietfontein 736KS and Rooikop 1590HR. The assessment has also revealed many deposits with inadequate geochemical information. Some of them fall close to the above infrastructural features, and thus warrant the sampling and chemical analyses.


Cement Limestone Carbonate Database GIS 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, School of Mining Metallurgy and Chemical EngineeringMineral Processing Technology Research Centre, University of JohannesburgDoornfonteinSouth Africa

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