Exploring the Influence of Land Use Type and Population Density on Urban Heat Island Intensity
The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon has gained increasing attention being an indicator of the anthropogenic activities’ effects on urban areas. Moreover, the establishment of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) for urban areas underscores the need to monitor the UHI phenomenon. This paper explores the influence of land use type and population density on UHI intensity using two Saudi cities, Jeddah and Yanbu, as case studies. Landsat images from 1990 to 2015 were used to extract the land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) of the study areas. Statistical measures and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the variations in LST due to land use type. The correlations between LST and the indices (NDVI and NDBI) and population density were also computed. The results show variations in LST due to land use type (at 0.01 level of significance) and the differences in the thermal regimes of the two cities. The population density is positively correlated with LST with R2 varying from 0.3 to 0.87 for Jeddah and Yanbu from 1991 to 2016.
KeywordsLand surface temperature Landsat imagery NDVI NDBI Urban heat island
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