Exploring the Influence of Land Use Type and Population Density on Urban Heat Island Intensity

  • Mir I. ParvezEmail author
  • Yusuf A. Aina
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon has gained increasing attention being an indicator of the anthropogenic activities’ effects on urban areas. Moreover, the establishment of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) for urban areas underscores the need to monitor the UHI phenomenon. This paper explores the influence of land use type and population density on UHI intensity using two Saudi cities, Jeddah and Yanbu, as case studies. Landsat images from 1990 to 2015 were used to extract the land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) of the study areas. Statistical measures and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the variations in LST due to land use type. The correlations between LST and the indices (NDVI and NDBI) and population density were also computed. The results show variations in LST due to land use type (at 0.01 level of significance) and the differences in the thermal regimes of the two cities. The population density is positively correlated with LST with R2 varying from 0.3 to 0.87 for Jeddah and Yanbu from 1991 to 2016.


Land surface temperature Landsat imagery NDVI NDBI Urban heat island 


  1. 1.
    Aina, Y.A., Parvez, I.M., Balogun, A.L.: Examining the effect of land use on the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban temperature in an industrial city: a landsat analysis. In: Pirasteh, S., Li, J. (eds.) Global changes and natural disaster management: geo-information technologies, pp. 3–15. Springer, Cham (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    United Nations (UN).: World Urbanization Prospect: The 2014 Revision—Highlights. United Nations, New York, USA (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bai, X., Dawson, R.J., Ürge-Vorsatz, D., Delgado, G.C., Barau, A.S., Dhakal, S., Dodman, D., Leonardsen, L., Masson-Delmotte, V., Roberts, D., Schultz, S.: Six research priorities for cities and climate change. Nature 555(7694), 23–25 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alghamdi, A.S., Moore, T.W.: Detecting temporal changes in Riyadh’s urban heat island. Pap. Appl. Geogr. 1(4), 312–325 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Almazroui, M., Mashat, A., Assiri, M.E., Butt, M.J.: Application of landsat data for urban growth monitoring in Jeddah. Earth Syst. Environ. 1, 25 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jiménez‐Muñoz, J.C., Sobrino, J.A.: A generalized single‐channel method for retrieving land surface temperature from remote sensing data. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 108(D22) (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aina, Y.A., Adam, E.M., Ahmed, F.: Spatiotemporal variations in the impacts of urban land use types on urban heat island effects: the case of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int. Arch. Photogrammetry, Remote Sens. Spat. Info. Sci. XLII-3/W2, 9–14 (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Keeratikasikorn, C., Bonafoni, S.: Urban heat island analysis over the land use zoning plan of Bangkok by means of Landsat 8 imagery. Remote Sens. 10(3), 440 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geomatics Engineering TechnologyYanbu Industrial CollegeYanbuSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations