Advertisement

Curriculum Co-design for Cultural Safety Training of Medical Students in Colombia: Protocol for a Qualitative Study

  • Juan PimentelEmail author
  • Germán Zuluaga
  • Andrés Isaza
  • Adriana Molina
  • Anne Cockcroft
  • Neil Andersson
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 861)

Abstract

Cultural safety in medical training encourages practitioners, in a culturally congruent way, to acknowledge the validity of their patients’ worldviews. Lack of cultural safety is linked to ethnic health disparities and ineffective health services. Colombian medical schools currently provide no training in cultural safety. The aim of this qualitative study is to: (i) document the opinions of stakeholders on what a curriculum in cultural safety should teach to medical students; and (ii) use this understanding to co-design a curriculum for cultural safety training of Colombian medical students. Focus groups will explore opinions of traditional medicine users, medical students, and cultural safety experts regarding the content of the curriculum; deliberative dialogue between key cultural safety experts will settle the academic content of the curriculum. The research develops participatory methods in medical education that might be of relevance in other subjects.

Keywords

Cultural safety Participatory research Medical education Colombia Thematic analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study is funded by the CEIBA Foundation (Colombia) and the Fonds de recherche du Québec – Santé (Canada). The traditional medicine users from the “Seed of Life” community organization, the cultural safety experts at the Group on Traditional Health Systems Studies and the Center for Community Health Studies, and medical students from La Sabana University supported the project. Cass Laurie helped proofread the final version of the manuscript and supported its write-up.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization: The Promotion and Development of Traditional Medicine. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js7147e/. Accessed 30 July 2018
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization: Declaration of Alma-Ata. http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2018
  3. 3.
    Williamson, M., Harrison, L.: Providing culturally appropriate care: a literature review. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. 47(6), 761–769 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.12.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hester, R.J.: The promise and paradox of cultural competence. HEC Forum 24(4), 279–291 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10730-012-9200-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chomat, A.M., Kring, B., Paiz, L.: Approaching maternal health from a decolonized, systemic, and culturally safe approach: case study of the Mayan-indigenous populations of Guatemala. In: Maternal Death and Pregnancy-Related Morbidity Among Indigenous Women of Mexico and Central America, 1st edn, pp. 483–511. Springer, Augusta, GE (2018)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    LaVeist, T., Gaskin, D., Richard, P.: Estimating the economic burden of racial health inequalities in the United States. Int. J. Heal. Serv. 41(2), 231–238 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.2190/hs.41.2.cCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liaison Committee on Medical Education: Functions and Structure of a Medical School: Standards for Accreditation of Medical Education Programs Leading to the MD Degree. http://lcme.org/publications/. Accessed 30 July 2018
  8. 8.
    General Medical Council: Tomorrow’s Doctors - Outcomes and Standards for Undergraduate Medical Education. http://www.gmc-uk.org/Tomorrow_s_Doctors_1214.pdf_48905759.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2018
  9. 9.
    Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools: Standards for Accreditation of Medical Education Programs Leading to the MD Degree. https://www.afmc.ca/pdf/CACMS_Standards_and_Elements_June_2014_Effective_July12015.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2018
  10. 10.
    Brusin, J.H.: How cultural competency can help reduce health disparities. Radiol. Technol. 84(2), 129–147 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Starr, S.S., Wallace, D.C.: Client perceptions of cultural competence of community-based nurses. J. Community Health Nurs. 28(2), 57–69 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1080/07370016.2011.564057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cai, D.Y.: A concept analysis of cultural competence. Int. J. Nurs. Sci. 3(3), 268–273 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2016.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hawthorne, K., Robles, Y., Cannings-John, R., Edwards, A.G.K.: Culturally appropriate health education for type 2 diabetes in ethnic minority groups: a systematic and narrative review of randomized controlled trials. Diabet. Med. 27(6), 613–623 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02954.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pon, G.: Cultural competency as new racism: an ontology of forgetting. J. Progress. Hum. Serv. 20(1), 59–71 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1080/10428230902871173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brascoupe, S., Waters, C.: Cultural safety: exploring the applicability of the concept of cultural safety to aboriginal health and community wellness. J. Aborig. Heal. 5, 6–41 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dyck, I., Kearns, R.: Transforming the relations of research: towards culturally safe geographies of health and healing. Health Place 1(3), 137–147 (1995).  https://doi.org/10.1016/1353-8292(95)00020-MCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nursing Council of New Zealand: Guidelines for Cultural Safety, the Treaty of Waitangi and Maori Health in Nursing Education and Practice. http://www.nursingcouncil.org.nz/Publications/Standards-and-guidelines-for-nurses. Accessed 30 July 2018
  18. 18.
    McEldowney, R., Connor, M.J.: Cultural safety as an ethic of care. J. Transcult. Nurs. 22(4), 342–349 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659611414139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    World Health Organization: WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002–2005. http://www.wpro.who.int/health_technology/book_who_traditional_medicine_strategy_2002_2005.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2018
  20. 20.
    Groleau, D., Zelkowitz, P., Cabral, I.E.: Enhancing generalizability: moving from an intimate to a political voice. Qual. Health Res. 19(3), 416–426 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732308329851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Israel, B.A., Schulz, A.J., Parker, E.A., Becker, A.B.: Review of community-based research: assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 19(1), 173–202 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.19.1.173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zuluaga, G., Andersson, N.: Initiation rites at menarche and self-reported dysmenorrhoea among indigenous women of the Colombian Amazon: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 3, e002012 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sarmiento, I., Zuluaga, G., Andersson, N.: Traditional medicine used in childbirth and for childhood diarrhoea in Nigeria’s Cross River State: interviews with traditional practitioners and a statewide cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 6, e010417 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marshall, M.N.: Sampling for qualitative research. Fam. Pract. 13(6), 522–526 (1996).  https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/13.6.522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Green, J., Thorogood, N.: Qualitative Methods for Health Research, 3rd edn. Sage, London (2014)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Braun, V., Clarke, V.: Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual. Res. Psychol. 3(2), 77–101 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Salsberg, J., Parry, D., Pluye, P., Macridis, S., Herbert, C.P., Macaulay, A.C.: Successful strategies to engage research partners for translating evidence into action in community health: a critical review. J. Environ. Public Health 2015, 1–15 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/191856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boyko, J.A., Lavis, J.N., Abelson, J., Dobbins, M., Carter, N.: Deliberative dialogues as a mechanism for knowledge translation and exchange in health systems decision-making. Soc. Sci. Med. 75(11), 1938–1945 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.06.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    The Center for Teaching and Learning: Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. https://teaching.uncc.edu/services-programs/teaching-guides/course-design/blooms-educational-objectives. Accessed 30 July 2018
  30. 30.
    Shenton, A.K.: Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Educ. Inf. 22(2), 63–75 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.3233/EFI-2004-22201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Universidad de La SabanaChíaColombia
  3. 3.Universidad del RosarioBogotáColombia
  4. 4.Centro de Investigación de Enfermedades Tropicales (CIET)Universidad Autónoma de GuerreroAcapulcoMexico

Personalised recommendations