CMIA for Biomedical and Low-Voltage Low-Power Applications
In this chapter, current-mode instrumentation amplifiers (CMIA) suitable for biomedical and low-voltage low-power applications are reviewed. The design requirements and the techniques used to meet them are discussed. One of the major problems of biomedical interfaces is the necessity to attach at least three electrodes to patient body which causes discomfort and increases the power consumption. The CCII-based bootstrapping technique used to design a two-electrode low-voltage low-power interface circuit is discussed. Due to the advances in CMOS technology and the reduced supply voltages, similar to conventional 3 Op-Amp based IAs, the voltage input-voltage output CMIAs also require high common-mode input and output ranges. Different low-voltage methods used to improve common-mode input and output ranges are also discussed.
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