Nuclear Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs) in South Asia

  • Adil Sultan


Confidence-Building Measures (CBMS), also known as Trust and Confidence-Building Measures (TCBMs) or Confidence and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs)—are useful to help improve mutual trust and overall security environment. CBMs could be in the conventional, nuclear, or any other field and could include communication, constraints, transparency and verification measures. India and Pakistan, in the past, have engaged in bilateral dialogue process that led to the negotiations of various nuclear CBMs and helped build trust and confidence between the two regional adversaries. Nevertheless, India’s shifting security orientation and its reluctance to engage with Pakistan in the CBMs process has made it difficult to discuss new measures between the two countries. Notwithstanding the current stalemate, it may be useful to revisit the history of CBMs process between India and Pakistan to help understand different priorities and the approaches maintained by both countries and for developing new approaches that could help build confidence between the two nuclear adversaries.


CBMs Lahore Declaration Lahore MoU Composite dialogue process South Asia 

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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adil Sultan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of War StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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