Gathering in the Plane of Location-Aware Robots in the Presence of Spies

  • Jurek Czyzowicz
  • Ryan Killick
  • Evangelos Kranakis
  • Danny Krizanc
  • Oscar Morale-Ponce
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11085)


A set of mobile robots (represented as points) is distributed in the Cartesian plane. The collection contains an unknown subset of byzantine robots which are indistinguishable from the reliable ones. The reliable robots need to gather, i.e., arrive to a configuration in which at the same time, all of them occupy the same point on the plane. The robots are equipped with GPS devices and at the beginning of the gathering process they communicate the Cartesian coordinates of their respective positions to the central authority. On the basis of this information, without the knowledge of which robots are faulty, the central authority designs a trajectory for every robot. The central authority aims to provide the trajectories which result in the shortest possible gathering time of the healthy robots. The efficiency of a gathering strategy is measured by its competitive ratio, i.e., the maximal ratio between the time required for gathering achieved by the given trajectories and the optimal time required for gathering in the offline case, i.e., when the faulty robots are known to the central authority in advance. The role of the byzantine robots, controlled by the adversary, is to act so that the gathering is delayed and the resulting competitive ratio is maximized.

The objective of our paper is to propose efficient algorithms when the central authority is aware of an upper bound on the number of byzantine robots. We give optimal algorithms for collections of robots known to contain at most one faulty robot. When the proportion of byzantine robots is known to be less than one half or one third, we provide algorithms with small constant competitive ratios. We also propose algorithms with bounded competitive ratio in the case where the proportion of faulty robots is arbitrary.


Byzantine Competitive ratio Gathering Location aware Reliable Robots 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jurek Czyzowicz
    • 1
  • Ryan Killick
    • 2
  • Evangelos Kranakis
    • 2
  • Danny Krizanc
    • 3
  • Oscar Morale-Ponce
    • 4
  1. 1.Département d’informatiqueUniversité du Québec en OutaouaisGatineauCanada
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Department of Mathematics and Computer ScienceWesleyan UniversityMiddletownUSA
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceCalifornia State UniversityLong BeachUSA

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