Advertisement

Introduction: Issues About Robustness in the Practice of Biological Sciences

  • Marta Bertolaso
  • Emanuele Serrelli
  • Silvia Caianiello
Chapter
Part of the History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences book series (HPTL, volume 23)

Abstract

Robustness has lately become a bridging notion, in particular across the sciences of the natural and the artificial, crucial for prediction and control of natural and artificial systems in recent scientific practice, in biomedicine, neurobiology and engineering, as well as for risk management, planning and policy in ecology, healthcare, markets and economy. From biological, neurological and societal systems, arising by the interplay of self-organizing dynamics and environmental pressures, to the current sophisticated engineering that aims at artificially reproducing the adaptability and resilience of living systems in front of perturbations in man-made devices, robustness seems to hold the key for orchestrating stability and change. This introduction offers a general survey of the contribution that the notion of robustness is providing to reframing major concepts within the life sciences, such as development, evolution, time and environment, and to reframing the relationship between biology and engineering, as well as between biology and physics.

Notes

Acknowledgements

So many people must be thanked for this volume. Fist of all we need to thank all the authors who have accepted to contribute a chapter for this volume. But our gratitude needs necessarily to extend to all those who have participated with great enthusiasm and generosity to the three Robustness Workshops held by the Bio-Techno-Practice Research Hub, as well as those who have served ad advisors for the same workshops, along with their institutions: Alessandro Giuliani, Alfred Nordmann, Alfredo Marcos, Alison Barth, Alvaro Moreno, Anna Maria Dieli, Arnon Levy, Dino Accoto, Edwin Morley-Fletcher, Emilio Bizzi, Flavio Keller, Gabriele Oliva, Giuseppe Vitiello, Guido Caniglia, Jane Maienschein, Lorenzo Farina, Luca Valera, Luisa Di Paola, Marcella Trombetta, Marco Buzzoni, Mazviita Chirimuta, Miles MacLeod, Nicola Di Stefano, Philippe Huneman, Raffaella Campaner, Sandra D. Mitchell, Simonetta Filippi, Timothy O’Leary, Trey Boone, Viola Schiaffonati. Very special thanks goes to Sandra Mitchell who supported this initiative since the beginning, being active in all phases of the process, from workshop organization to post-workshop elaboration. For institutional and material support, we are grateful to the Institute for Philosophy of Scientific and Technological Practice (FAST) at University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome and to the Centre for Philosphy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh (PA). For sponsoring the workshops, we must thank Fondazione Cattolica Assicurazioni, M3V ONLUS and the Istituto per la Storia del Pensiero Filosofico e Scientifico Moderno (ISPF) of Italian CNR. Finally, we need to thank Philippe Huneman who, as series editor, believed in publishing this volume. We thank also the other series editors and staff at Springer who have done a patient and wonderful job in all phases of the book production.

References

  1. Alderson, D. L., & Doyle, J. C. (2010). Contrasting views of complexity and their implications for network-centric infrastructures. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part A: Systems and Humans, 40(4), 839–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, T. F. H., & Starr, T. B. (1982). Hierarchy: Perspectives for ecological complexity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alon, U., et al. (1999). Robustness in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature, 397(6715), 168–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bateson, P., & Gluckman, P. (2011). Plasticity, robustness, development and evolution. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker, D., et al. (2006). Robust Salmonella metabolism limits possibilities for new antimicrobials. Nature, 440(7082), 303–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertolaso, M. (Ed.). (2014). The future of scientific practice: “Bio-Techno-Logos,” Pickering & Chatto.Google Scholar
  7. Bertolaso, M. (2016). Philosophy of cancer: A dynamic and relational view. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertolaso, M., & Caianiello, S. (2016). Robustness as organized heterogeneity. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica, CVIII, 293–303.Google Scholar
  9. Bertolaso, M., & MacLeod, M. (Eds.). (2016). In silico modeling: The human factor, Humana.Mente Journal of Philsophical Studies 30.Google Scholar
  10. Bertolaso, M., Giuliani, A., & De Gara, L. (2011). Systems biology reveals biology of systems. Complexity, 16(6), 10–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhattacharyya, S. P., Chapellat, H., & Keel, L. H. (1995). Robust control: The parametric approach. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  12. Bissell, M. J., Rizki, A., & Mian, I. S. (2003). Tissue architecture: The ultimate regulator of breast epithelial function. Current Opinion in Cell Biology, 15(6), 753–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bloom, J. D., et al. (2006). Protein stability promotes evolvability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(15), 5869–5874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bloom, J. D., et al. (2007). Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations. BMC Biology, 5(1), 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blume, M., et al. (2015). A Toxoplasma gondii gluconeogenic enzyme contributes to robust central carbon metabolism and is essential for replication and virulence. Cell Host & Microbe, 18(2), 210–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bokma, F. (2015). Evolution as a largely autonomous process. In E. Serrelli & N. Gontier (Eds.), Macroevolution. Explanation, interpretation and evidence (pp. 87–112). Cham/Heidelberg/New York/Dordrecht/London: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Boogerd, F. C., et al. (Eds.). (2007). Systems biology: Philosophical foundations. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  18. Braendle, C., & Flatt, T. (2006). A role for genetic accommodation in evolution? BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, 28(9), 868–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caetano-Anollés, G., Yafremava, L., & Mittenthal, J. E. (2010). Modularity and dissipation in evolution of macromolecular structures, functions, and networks. In Evolutionary genomics and systems biology (pp. 431–449). Hoboken: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlson, J. M., & Doyle, J. (2002). Complexity and robustness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(Suppl 1), 2538–2545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Csete, M. E., & Doyle, J. (2002). Reverse engineering of biological complexity. Science, 295(5560), 1664–1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Csete, M., & Doyle, J. (2004). Bow ties, metabolism and disease. Trends in Biotechnology, 22(9), 446–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Visser, J. A. G. M., et al. (2003). Perspective: Evolution and detection of genetic robustness. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution, 57(9), 1959–1972.Google Scholar
  24. Delattre, M., & Félix, M.-A. (2009). The evolutionary context of robust and redundant cell biological mechanisms. BioEssays, 31(5), 537–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Devert, A., Bredeche, N., & Schoenauer, M. (2011). Robustness and the halting problem for multicellular artificial ontogeny. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15(3), 387–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Donzé, A., et al. (2011). Robustness analysis and behavior discrimination in enzymatic reaction networks J. Parkinson, ed. PLoS ONE, 6(9), e24246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duc-Hau Le, D. H., & Kwon, Y.-K. (2013). A coherent feedforward loop design principle to sustain robustness of biological networks. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 29(5), 630–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Edelman, G. M., & Gally, J. A. (2001). Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(24), 13763–13768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Edery, I. (2000). Circadian rhythms in a nutshell. Physiological Genomics, 3(2), 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Endy, D. (2005). Foundations for engineering biology. Nature, 438(7067), 449–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ereshefsky, M. (2012). Homology thinking. Biology and Philosophy, 27(3), 381–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Feinerman, O., et al. (2008). Variability and robustness in T cell activation from regulated heterogeneity in protein levels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1081–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Félix, M.-A., & Wagner, A. (2008). Robustness and evolution: Concepts, insights and challenges from a developmental model system. Heredity, 100(2), 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fernandez-Leon, J. A. (2011). Behavioral robustness and the distributed mechanisms hypothesis: Lessons from bio-inspired and theoretical biology. Ciencia y Tecnología, 11(2), 85–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Force, A., et al. (2005). The origin of subfunctions and modular gene regulation. Genetics, 170(1), 433–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Freeman, M. (2000). Feedback control of intercellular signalling in development. Nature, 408(6810), 313–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fusco, G., Carrer, R., & Serrelli, E. (2014). The landscape metaphor in development. In A. Minelli & T. Pradeu (Eds.), Towards a theory of development (pp. 114–128). Oxford: New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Galison, P. (1997). Image and logic: A material culture of microphysics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gibson, G. (2002). Developmental evolution: Getting robust about robustness. Current Biology, 12(10), 347–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giuliani, A., Filippi, S., & Bertolaso, M. (2014). Why network approach can promote a new way of thinking in biology. Frontiers in Genetics, 5(APR), 1–5.Google Scholar
  41. Gonze, D., Halloy, J., & Goldbeter, A. (2002). Robustness of circadian rhythms with respect to molecular noise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(2), 673–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goodwin, B. C., Kauffman, S., & Murray, J. D. (1993). Is morphogenesis an intrinsically robust process? Journal of Theoretical Biology, 163(1), 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gorban, A. N., & Radulescu, O. (2007). Dynamical robustness of biological networks with hierarchical distribution of time scales. IET Systems Biology, 1(4), 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gorman, M. E. (Ed.). (2010). Trading zones and interactional expertise. Creating new kinds of collaboration. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  45. Gu, Z., et al. (2003). Role of duplicate genes in genetic robustness against null mutations. Nature, 421(6918), 63–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guo, H. H., Choe, J., & Loeb, L. a. (2004). Protein tolerance to random amino acid change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(25), 9205–9210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hagios, C., Lochter, A., & Bissell, M. J. (1998). Tissue architecture: The ultimate regulator of epithelial function? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 353(1370), 857–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hammerstein, P., et al. (2006). Robustness: A key to evolutionary design. Biological Theory, 1(1), 90–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hartman, J. L., Garvik, B., & Hartwell, L. (2001). Principles for the buffering of genetic variation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5506), 1001–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hartwell, L. H., et al. (1999). From molecular to modular cell biology. Nature, 402(6761 Suppl), C47–C52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hejnol, A., & Lowe, C. J. (2015). Embracing the comparative approach: How robust phylogenies and broader developmental sampling impacts the understanding of nervous system evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 370(1684).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hintze, A., & Adami, C. (2008). Evolution of complex modular biological networks. PLoS Computational Biology, 4(2), e23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hunter, P. (2009). Robust yet flexible. In biological systems, resistance to change and innovation in the light of it go hand in hand. EMBO Reports, 10(9), 949–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jen, E. (2003). Stable or robust? What’s the difference? Complexity, 8(3), 12–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jin, Y., & Meng, Y. (2011). Morphogenetic robotics: An emerging new field in developmental robotics. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews), 41(2), 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones, C. B. (2012). Robustness, plasticity, and evolvability in mammals: A thermal niche approach. New York/Heidelberg/Dordrecht/London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kacser, H., & Burns, J. A. (1973). The control of flux. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, 27, 65–104.Google Scholar
  58. Kitano, H. (2004). Biological robustness. Nature Reviews. Genetics, 5(11), 826–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kitano, H., & Oda, K. (2006). Self-extending symbiosis: A mechanism for increasing robustness through evolution. Biological Theory, 1(1), 61–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klopčič, M., et al. (2009). Breeding for robustness in cattle. Wageningen: EAAP publication/Wageningen Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Krakauer, D. C. (2005). Robustness in Biological Systems: A provisional taxonomy. In T. S. Deisboeck & J. Kresh (Eds.), Complex systems science in biomedicine, Santa Fe Institute Working Papers (pp. 185–207). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  62. Krakauer, D. C., & Plotkin, J. B. (2001). Redundancy, antiredundancy, and the robustness of genomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(3), 1405–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leibler, S., & Barkai, N. (2000). Biological rhythms: Circadian clocks limited by noise. Nature, 403(6767), 267–268.Google Scholar
  64. Lesne, A. (2008). Robustness: Confronting lessons from physics and biology. Biological Reviews, 83(4), 509–532.Google Scholar
  65. Levin, M. (2012). Morphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: Non-local control of complex patterning. Bio Systems, 109(3), 243–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Levin, S. A., & Lubchenco, J. (2008). Resilience, robustness, and marine ecosystem-based management. Bioscience, 58(1), 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Levy, S. A., & Siegal, M. L. (2012). The robustness continuum. In O. S. Soyer (Ed.), Evolutionary systems biology (pp. 431–452). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. MacLeod, M., & Nersessian, N. J. (2013). Coupling simulation and experiment: The bimodal strategy in integrative systems biology. Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 44(4), 572–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. MacNeil, L. T., & Walhout, A. J. M. (2011). Gene regulatory networks and the role of robustness and stochasticity in the control of gene expression. Genome Research, 21, 645–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mayr, E. (1993). Proximate and ultimate causation. Biology and Philosophy, 8, 95–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Minelli, A., & Pradeu, T. e. (2014). Towards a theory of development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mitchell, S. D. (2003). Biological complexity and integrative pluralism (Cambridge studies in philosophy and biology, p. 244). Cambridge University Press: CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  73. Mitchell, S. D. (2009). Unsimple truths. In Science, complexity, and policy. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  74. Morohashi, M., et al. (2002). Robustness as a measure of plausibility in models of biochemical networks. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 216(1), 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Muir, W. M., Cheng, H. W., & Croney, C. (2014). Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations. Frontiers in Genetics, 5(NOV), 1–11.Google Scholar
  76. Nijhout, H. F. (2002). The nature of robustness in development. BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, 24(6), 553–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Noman, N., et al. (2015). Evolving robust gene regulatory networks. PLoS One, 10(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pattee, H. H. (1973). Hierarchy theory: The challenge of complex systems. New York: George Braziller.Google Scholar
  79. Pichersky, E. (2005). Is the concept of regulation overused in molecular and cellular biology? The Plant Cell, 17(12), 3217–3218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pigliucci, M., Murren, C. J., & Schlichting, C. D. (2006). Phenotypic plasticity and evolution by genetic assimilation. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 209(Pt 12), 2362–2367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pow, H. (2013). Meet the toughest animal on the planet: The water bear that can survive being frozen or boiled, float around in space and live for 200 years (shame it isn’t much to look at). Daily Mail Online, February 18, at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2280286/Meet-toughest-animal-planet-The-water-bear-survive-frozen-boiled-float-space-live-200-years.html. Accessed 1 Mar 2017.
  82. Pradeu, T. et al. (2016). Defining “Development.” Current Topics in Developmental BiologyGoogle Scholar
  83. Pumain, D. (Ed.). (2006). Hierarchy in natural and social sciences. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  84. Ramos-Jiliberto, R., et al. (2012). Topological plasticity increases robustness of mutualistic networks. Journal of Animal Ecology, 81(4), 896–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rollins, L. (1999). Robust control theory. In P. Koopman (Ed.). Topics in dependable embedded systems. Carnegie Mellon University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department.Google Scholar
  86. Rutherford, S. L. (2000). From genotype to phenotype: Buffering mechanisms and the storage of genetic information. BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, 22(12), 1095–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Safonov, M. (2012). Origins of robust control: Early history and future speculations. Annual Reviews in Control, 36(2), 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sastry, S., & Bodson, M. (1989). Adaptative control. Stability, convergence, and robustness. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  89. Savageau, M. A., et al. (2009). Phenotypes and tolerances in the design space of biochemical systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(16), 6435–6440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Serrelli, E. (2016). Removing barriers in scientific research: Concepts, synthesis and catalysis. In Understanding cultural traits (pp. 403–410). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shahbazi, Z., Kaminski, A., & Evans, L. (2015). Mechanical stress analysis of tree branches. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 3(2), 32–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Siegal, M. L., & Bergman, A. (2002). Waddington’s canalization revisited: Developmental stability and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(16), 10528–10532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Soler, L., et al. (Eds.). (2012). Characterizing the robustness of science: After the practice turn in philosophy of science. Dordrecht/Heidelberg/London/New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  94. Stegenga, J. (2009). Robustness, discordance, and relevance. Philosophy of Science, 76(5), 650–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tëmkin, I., & Eldredge, N. (2015). Networks and hierarchies: Approaching complexity in evolutionary theory. In E. Serrelli & N. Gontier (Eds.), Macroevolution. Explanation, interpretation and evidence (pp. 183–226). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  96. Tempesti, G., Mange, D., & Stauffer, A. (1997). A robust multiplexer-based FPGA inspired by biological systems. Journal of Systems Architecture, 43(10), 719–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Teng, S.-W., et al. (2013). Robust circadian oscillations in growing cyanobacteria require transcriptional feedback. Science, 340(6133), 737–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Thieffry, D., & Romero, D. (1999). The modularity of biological regulatory networks. Biosystems, 50(1), 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Treviño, S., et al. (2012). Robust detection of hierarchical communities from escherichia coli gene expression data. PLoS Computational Biology, 8(2), e1002391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. van der Krogt, M. M., et al. (2009). Robust passive dynamics of the musculoskeletal system compensate for unexpected surface changes during human hopping. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 107(3), 801–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Waddington, C. H. (1940). Organisers and genes. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Wagner, A. (2005a). Distributed robustness versus redundancy as causes of mutational robustness. BioEssays, 27(2), 176–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wagner, A. (2005b). Robustness and evolvability in living systems. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Wagner, A. (2008). Robustness and evolvability: A paradox resolved. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences, 275(1630), 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Weisberg, M. (2006). Robustness analysis. Philosophy of Science, 73, 730–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. West-Eberhard, M. J. (2005). Developmental plasticity and the origin of species differences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(Suppl (2)), 6543–6549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Whitacre, J. M. (2012). Biological robustness: Paradigms, mechanisms, systems principles. Frontiers in Genetics, 3(MAY), 1–15.Google Scholar
  108. Wilke, C. O. (2001). Selection for fitness versus selection for robustness in RNA secondary structure folding. Evolution, 55(12), 2412–2420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wimsatt, W. C. (1980). Robustness, reliability and multiple determinism in science: The nature and variety of a powerful famiIy of problem-solving heuristics. In M. Brewer & B. Collins (Eds.), knowing and validating in the social sciences: A tribute to Donald T. Campbeii. san francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  110. Wimsatt, W. C. (1981). Robustness, reliability and overdetermination. In M. Brewer & B. Collins (Eds.), Scientific inquiry and the social sciences (pp. 124–163). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  111. Woodward, J. (2011). Scientific explanation. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Bertolaso
    • 1
  • Emanuele Serrelli
    • 2
  • Silvia Caianiello
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Departmental Faculty of Engineering and FASTInstitute for Philosophy of Scientific and Technological Practice, University Campus Bio-Medico of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.CISEPS – Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Economics, Psychology and Social SciencesUniversity of Milano BicoccaBresciaItaly
  3. 3.Institute for the History of Philosophy and Science in Modern Age (ISPF)National Research CouncilNaplesItaly
  4. 4.Zoological Station Anton DohrnNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations