Error Reconciliation with Turbo Codes for Secret Key Generation in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 857)


We present an algorithm that allows two users to establish a symmetric cryptographic key by incorporating the most important features of the wireless channel in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The proposed model includes surrounding scatterers’ mobility by considering other vehicles; it also includes three-dimensional (3D) multipath propagation. These temporal variability attributes are incorporated into the key generation process where non-reciprocity compensation is combined with turbo codes (TCs). For fair comparisons, the indexing technique is applied in conjunction with the non-reciprocity compensation technique. A series of simulations are run to calculate key performance indicators (KPIs). The entropy values were high throughout all rounds of simulation and estimated around 0.94 to 0.99 bits per sample. Furthermore, simulation results reveal a decrease in bit mismatch rate (BMR) and an increase key generation rate (KGR) when TCs are used. The estimated BMR is nearly the same for different key lengths, and it is estimated to only 0.02 with TCs, compared to 0.22 obtained with the indexing technique. Finally, the key generation rate was also reported high ranging from 35 to 39 for the 128-bit symmetric keys per minute with TCs, while it is ranging from 3 to 7 when compared with a sample indexing technique published in the public domain.


Bit mismatch rate Entropy Error reconciliation Key generation Quantization Scatterers’ mobility Temporal variability Thresholding Turbo codes VANET 



This work was partially funded by the Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL), under contract CDE 41130. The authors would also like to thank Mr George Samartzidis for his initial contribution in the algorithm development.


  1. 1.
    Robshaw, M.J.B., Billet, O. (eds.) New Stream Cipher Designs - TheeSTREAM Finalists, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4986. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jha, N.K., Raghunathan, A., Potlapally, N.R., Ravi, S.: A study of the energy consumption characteristics of cryptographic algorithms and security protocols. IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput. 5, 128–143 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mukherjee, Fakoorian, S.A.A., Huang, J., Swindlehurst, A.L.: Principles of Physical layer security in multiuser wireless networks: a survey, CoRR, vol. abs/1011.3754 (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shehadeh, Y.E.H., Hogrefe, D.: A survey on secret key generation mechanisms on the physical layer in wireless networks. Sec. Commun. Netw. 8(2), 332–341 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang, T., Liu, Y., Vasilakos, A.V.: Survey on channel reciprocity based key establishment techniques for wireless systems. Wirel. Netw. 21(6), 1835–1846 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qu, F., Wu, Z., Wang, F.Y., Cho, W.: A security and privacy review of vanets. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 16(6), 2985–2996 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Karadimas, P., Matolak, D.W.: Generic stochastic modeling of vehicle-to-vehicle wireless channels. Veh. Commun. 1(4), 153–167 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu, H., Wang, Y., Yang, J., Chen, Y.: Fast and practical secret key extraction by exploiting channel response. In: INFOCOM, pp. 3048–3056. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mathur, S., Trappe, W., Mandayam, N., Ye, C., Reznik, A.: Secret key extraction from level crossings over unauthenticated wireless channels, pp. 201–230. Springer, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hirschausen, P., Davis, L., Haley, D., Lever, K.: Identify key design parameters for Monte Carlo simulation of Doppler Spread channels. In: Communications Theory Workshop (AusCTW), Sydney (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoecher, P.: A statistical discrete-time model for the WSSUS multipath channel. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 41(4), 461–468 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berrou, C., Glavieux, A., Thitimajshima, P.: Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: Turbo-codes. In: Proceedings of ICC 1993, Geneva, Switzerland, vol. 2, pp. 1064–1070, May 1993Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nguyen, K., Assche, G.V., Cerf, N.J.: Side-information coding with turbo codes and its application to quantum key distribution, CoRR, vol. cs.IT/0406001 (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benletaief, N., Rezig, H., Bouallegue, A.: Toward efficient quantum key distribution reconciliation. J. Quantum Inf. Sci. 4(02), 117 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yeo, E., Anantharam, V.: Iterative decoder architectures. IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(8), 132–140 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Epiphaniou, G., Karadimas, P., Kbaier Ben Ismail, D., Al-Khateeb, H., Dehghantanha, A., Choo, K.K.R.: Non-reciprocity compensation combined with turbo codes for secret key generation in vehicular Ad Hoc social IoT networks. IEEE Internet Things J. 5(4), 2496–2505 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Azimi-Sadjadi, B., Kiayias, A., Mercado, A., Yener, B.: Robust key generation from signal envelopes in wireless networks. In: Proceedings of the 14th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, ser. CCS 2007, pp. 401–410. ACM, New York (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wolverhampton Cyber Research Institute (WCRI), School of Mathematics and Computer ScienceUniversity of WolverhamptonWolverhamptonUK
  2. 2.School of EngineeringUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations