Advertisement

The Role of the Therapeutic Alliance in Offender Therapy

  • Brandy Blasko
  • Geris Serran
  • Jeff Abracen
Chapter

Abstract

The general psychotherapy literature has long demonstrated that the therapeutic alliance predicts psychotherapeutic outcome. The relationship between client and therapist is considered the foundation of therapeutic work and is viewed as one of the main tools for achieving client change. In recent years, the therapeutic alliance has proven integral to treatment outcomes in offender therapy settings. To date, research has found that offenders can form a strong working alliance with their therapist and that several therapist and client factors have been found to predict the quality of the therapeutic alliance within offender treatment. This chapter synthesizes findings from studies of the therapeutic alliance in offender therapy settings, with a section devoted to consideration of the therapeutic alliance in the context of treatment high-risk offender populations.

Keywords

Offender therapy Psychopathy Rehabilitation Therapeutic alliance 

References

  1. Abel, G. G., Becker, J. V., Cunningham-Rathner, J., Mittelman, M., & Rouleau, J. L. (1988). Multiple paraphilic diagnoses among sex offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 16(2), 153–168. Retrieved from jaapl.org
  2. Abracen, J., Gallo, A., Looman, J., & Goodwill, A. (2015). Individual community-based treatment of offenders with mental illness: Relationship to recidivism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(10), 1842–1858.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515570745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abracen, J., & Looman, J. (2016). Treatment of high risk sexual offenders: An integrated approach. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  4. Abracen, J., Looman, J., & Ferguson, M. (2017). Substance abuse among sexual offenders: Review of research and clinical implications. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 23(3), 235–250.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13552600.2017.1334967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abracen, J., Looman, J., & Langton, C. M. (2008). Treatment of sexual offenders with psychopathic traits: Recent research developments and clinical implications. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 9(3), 144–166.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838008319633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ackerman, S. J., & Hilsenroth, M. J. (2003). A review of therapist characteristics and techniques positively impacting the therapeutic alliance. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(1), 1–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00146-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alexander, J. F., Barton, C., Schiaro, R. S., & Parsons, B. V. (1976). Systems-behavioral intervention with families of delinquents: Therapist characteristics, family behavior, and outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44(4), 656–664.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.44.4.656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (1998). The psychology of criminal conduct (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.Google Scholar
  9. Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). The psychology of criminal conduct (5th ed.). New Providence, NJ: Matthew Bender & Company.Google Scholar
  10. Annis, H. M., & Chan, D. (1983). The differential treatment model: Empirical evidence from a personality typology of adult offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 10(2), 159–173.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854883010002002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashby, J. D., Ford, D. H., Guerkey, B. G., Jr., Guerkey, L. F., & Snyder, W. U. (1957). Effects on clients of a reflective and a leading type of psychotherapy. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 71(24), 1–32.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bachelor, A. (1995). Clients’ perception of the therapeutic alliance: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(3), 323–337.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.42.3.323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bandura, A., Lipsher, D. H., & Miller, P. E. (1960). Psychotherapists approach-avoidance reactions to patients’ expressions of hostility. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24(1), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0043403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barrett, M. S., & Berman, J. S. (2001). Is psychotherapy more effective when therapists disclose information about themselves? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(4), 597–603.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.69.4.597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bates, S. (2007). The eight most frequent mistakes people make in front of an audience. Business Strategy Series, 8(4), 311–317.  https://doi.org/10.1108/17515630710684367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bedi, R. P., Davis, M. D., & Wiliams, M. (2005). Critical incidents in the formation of the therapeutic alliance from the client’s perspective. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(3), 311–323.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.42.3.311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beech, A. R., Fisher, D., & Beckett, R. C. (1998). An evaluation of the prison sex offender treatment programme. U.K. Home Office Occasional Report. London, UK: Home Office.Google Scholar
  18. Beech, A. R., & Fordham, A. S. (1997). Therapeutic climate of sexual offender treatment programs. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 9(3), 219–237.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02675066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beutler, L. E., Dunbar, P. W., & Baer, P. E. (1980). Individual variation among therapists’ perceptions of patients, therapy process and outcome. Psychiatry, 43(3), 205–210.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1980.11024067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beutler, L. E., Malik, M. L., Alimohamed, S., Harwood, T. M., Talebi, H., Noble, S., & Wong, E. (2004). Therapist variables. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behaviour change (5th ed., pp. 227–306). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Beutler, L. E., Pollack, S., & Jobe, A. (1978). Acceptance, values, and therapeutic change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(1), 198–199.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.1.198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bierie, D. M., & Mann, R. E. (2017). The history and future of prison psychology. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 23(4), 478–489.  https://doi.org/10.1037/law0000143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blasko, B. L., Friedmann, P. D., Rhodes, A. G., & Taxman, F. S. (2015). The parolee–parole officer relationship as a mediator of criminal justice outcomes. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 42(7), 722–740.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854814562642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blasko, B. L., & Jeglic, E. L. (2016). Sexual offenders’ perceptions of the client-therapist relationship: The role of risk. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 28(4), 271–290.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063214529802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bohart, A. C., Elliott, R., Greenberg, L. S., & Watson, J. C. (2002). Empathy. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 89–108). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Bordin, E. S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 16(3), 252–260.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0085885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bordin, E. S. (1994). Theory and research on the therapeutic working alliance: New directions. In A. O. Horvath & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), The working alliance: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 13–37). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Braaten, E. B., Otto, S., & Handelsman, M. M. (1993). What do people want to know about psychotherapy? Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 30(4), 565–570.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.30.4.565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Burns, D. D., & Auerbach, A. (1996). Therapeutic empathy in cognitive-behavioral therapy: Does it really make a difference? In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 135–164). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Cooley, E. J., & Lajoy, R. (1980). Therapeutic relationship and improvement as perceived by clients and therapists. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36(2), 562–570.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.6120360230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cullari, S. (1996). Treatment resistance: A guide for practitioners. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  32. Curtis, J. M. (1982). The effect of therapist self-disclosure on patients’ perceptions of empathy, competence and trust in an analogue psychotherapeutic interaction. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 19(1), 54–62.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0088417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Davis, K. (1986). The process of problem and (re)formulation in psychotherapy. Sociology of Health and Illness, 8(1), 44–74.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11346469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. DeSorcy, D. R., Olver, M. E., & Wormith, J. S. (2016). Working alliance and its relationship with treatment outcome in a sample of aboriginal and non-aboriginal sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 28(4), 291–313.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063214556360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. DeSorcy, D. R., Olver, M. E., & Wormith, J. S. (2017). Working alliance and psychopathy: Linkages to treatment outcome in a sample of treated sexual offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517698822
  36. DiClemente, C. C. (1991). Motivational interviewing and the stages of change. In W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick (Eds.), Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behavior (pp. 191–202). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Duncan, B. L., Miller, S. D., & Sparks, J. A. (2004). The heroic client: A revolutionary way to improve effectiveness through client-directed, outcome-informed therapy (Rev. ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  38. Egan, G. (1998). The skilled helper: A problem-management approach to helping (6th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  39. Eisenthal, S., Emery, R., Lazare, A., & Udin, H. (1979). Adherence and the negotiated approach to patienthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36(4), 393–398.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1979.01780040035003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Elliott, R. (1985). Helpful and nonhelpful events in brief counseling interviews: An empirical taxonomy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32(3), 307–322.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.32.3.307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Elliott, R., Barker, C. B., Caskey, N., & Pistrang, N. (1982). Differential helpfulness of counselor verbal response modes. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(4), 354–361.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.29.4.354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Falk, D. R., & Hill, C. E. (1992). Counselor interventions preceding client laughter in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39(1), 39–45.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.39.1.39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fernandez, Y. M., Marshall, W. L., Lightbody, S., & O’Sullivan, C. (1999). The child molester empathy measure. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11(1), 17–31.  https://doi.org/10.1177/107906329901100103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Flückiger, C., Del Re, A. C., Wampold, B. E., Symonds, D., Wampold, B. E., & Horvath, A. O. (2012). How central is the alliance in psychotherapy? A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 10–17.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ford, J. D. (1978). Therapeutic relationship in behavior therapy: An empirical analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(6), 1302–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.6.1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Free, N. K., Green, B. L., Grace, M. C., Chernus, L. A., & Whitman, R. M. (1985). Empathy and outcome in brief focal dynamic therapy. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 142(8), 917–921.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.142.8.917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fremont, S., & Anderson, W. (1986). What client behaviors make counselors angry? An exploratory study. Journal of Counseling & Development, 65(2), 67–70.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1986.tb01233.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Garfield, S. L., & Bergin, A. E. (1986). Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Gelso, C. J., & Carter, J. A. (1994). Components of the psychotherapy relationship: Their interaction and unfolding during treatment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41(3), 296–306.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.41.3.296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goldfried, M. R., Burckell, L. A., & Eubanks-Carter, C. (2003). Therapist self-disclosure in cognitive-behavior therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 555–568.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Greenberg, L. S. (2007). Emotion coming of age. Clinical Psychology: Science and practice, 14(4), 414–421.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.2007.00101.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Greenberg, L. S., & Watson, J. C. (2006). Emotion-focused therapy for depression. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Greenwald, H. (1987). The humor decision. In W. F. Fry Jr. & W. A. Salameh (Eds.), Handbook of humor and psychotherapy: Advances in the clinical use of humor (pp. 41–54). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.Google Scholar
  54. Hare, R. D. (1991). Manual for the revised psychopathy checklist. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  55. Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare psychopathy checklist-revised (PCL-R) (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  56. Hervé, H. (2007). Psychopathy across the ages: A history of the Hare psychopath. In H. Hervé & J. C. Yuille (Eds.), The psychopath: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 31–56). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Hervé, H., & Yuille, J. C. (Eds.). (2007). The psychopath: Theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Hill, C. E., & Knox, S. (2001). Self-disclosure. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38(4), 413–417.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.38.4.413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Horvath, A. O. (2001). The alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38(4), 365–372.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.38.4.365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Horvath, A. O., & Bedi, R. P. (2002). The alliance. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 37–69). London, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Horvath, A. O., & Greenberg, L. S. (1989). Development and validation of the Working Alliance Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36(2), 223–233.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.36.2.223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Horvath, A. O., & Luborsky, L. (1993). The role of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(4), 561–573.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.4.561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Horvath, A. O., & Symonds, B. D. (1991). Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(2), 139–149.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.38.2.139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Keijsers, G. P. J., Schaap, C. P. D. R., & Hoogduin, C. A. L. (2000). The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy: A review of empirical studies. Behavior Modification, 24(2), 264–297.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445500242006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kivlighan, D. M., & Shaughnessy, P. (1995). Analysis of the development of the working alliance using hierarchical linear modeling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(3), 338–349.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.42.3.338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kivlighan, D. M., Jr., & Shaughnessy, P. (2000). Patterns of working alliance development: A typology of client’s working alliance ratings. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(3), 362–371.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.47.3.362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Klein, M. H., Mathieu-Coughlan, P., & Kiesler, D. J. (1986). The experiencing scales. In L. S. Greenberg & W. M. Pinsof (Eds.), Guilford clinical psychology and psychotherapy series. The psychotherapeutic process: A research handbook (pp. 21–71). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  68. Klerman, G. L., Weissman, M. M., Rounsaville, B., & Chevron, E. (1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  69. Kottler, J. A., Sexton, T. L., & Whiston, S. C. (1994). The heart of healing: Relationships in therapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  70. Kozar, C. J., & Day, A. (2012). The therapeutic alliance in offending behavior programs: A necessary and sufficient condition for change? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(5), 482–487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.07.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lambert, M. J. (1999). Are differential treatment effects inflated by researcher therapy allegiance? Could clever Hans count? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6(1), 127–130.  https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.6.1.127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lambert, M. J., & Barley, D. E. (2001). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38(4), 357–361.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.38.4.357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lambert, M. J., Christensen, E. R., & DeJulio, S. S. (Eds.). (1983). The assessment of psychotherapy outcome. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  74. Lieberman, M. A., Yalom, I. D., & Miles, M. B. (1973). Encounter groups: First facts. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  75. Lietaer, G. (1992). Helping and hindering processes in client-centered/experiential psychotherapy: A content analysis of client and therapist postsession perceptions. In S. G. Toukmanian & D. L. Rennie (Eds.), Psychotherapy process research: Paradigmatic and narrative approaches (Sage focus ed., Vol. 143, pp. 134–162). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  76. Lilliengren, P., & Werbart, A. (2005). A model of therapeutic action grounded in the patients’ view of curative and hindering factors in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(3), 324–339.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.42.3.324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  78. Looman, J., Abracen, J., Serin, R., & Marquis, P. (2005). Psychopathy, treatment change, and recidivism in high-risk high-need sexual offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(5), 549–568.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260504271583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Luborsky, M. R. (1994). The identification and analysis of themes and patterns. In J. F. Gubrium & A. Sankar (Eds.), Qualitative methods in aging research (Sage focus ed., Vol. 168, pp. 189–210). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  80. Mahoney, M. J., & Norcross, J. C. (1993). Relationship styles and therapeutic choices: A commentary on the preceding four articles. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 30(3), 423–426.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.30.3.423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marshall, L. E., Marshall, W. L., Moulden, H. M., & Serran, G. A. (2008). CEU eligible article the prevalence of sexual addiction in incarcerated sexual offenders and matched community nonoffenders. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 15, 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Marshall, W. L. (2005). Therapist style in sexual offender treatment: Influence on indices of change. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17(2), 109–116.  https://doi.org/10.1177/107906320501700202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marshall, W. L., Anderson, D., & Champagne, F. (1997). Self-esteem and its relationship to sexual offending. Psychology, Crime & Law, 3(3), 81–106.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10683169708410811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Marshall, W. L., Anderson, D., & Fernandez, Y. (1999). Cognitive behavioural treatment of sexual offenders. London, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  85. Marshall, W. L., Fernandez, Y. M., Serran, G. A., Mulloy, R., Thornton, D., Mann, R., & Anderson, D. (2003). Process variables in the treatment of sexual offenders: A review of the relevant literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 8(2), 205–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00065-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Marshall, W. L., Marshall, L. E., & Ware, J. (2009). Cognitive distortions in sexual offenders: Should they all be treatment targets? Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand, 2(1), 21–33. Retrieved from https://www.anzatsa.org/saanz-journal/
  87. Marshall, W. L., Serran, G., Moulden, H., Mulloy, R., Fernandez, Y. M., Mann, R., & Thornton, D. (2002). Therapist features in sexual offender treatment: Their reliable identification and influence on behaviour change. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 9(6), 395–405.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Marshall, W. L., Serran, G. A., Fernandez, Y. M., Mulloy, R., Mann, R. E., & Thornton, D. (2003). Therapist characteristics in the treatment of sexual offenders: Tentative data on their relationship with indices of behaviour change. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 9(1), 25–30.  https://doi.org/10.1080/355260031000137940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P., & Davis, M. K. (2000). Relation of the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(3), 438–450.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.3.438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Martin, G., & Pear, J. (1996). Behavior modification: What it is and how to do it (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  91. Mathews, A. M., Johnston, D. W., Lancashire, M., Munby, M., Shaw, P. M., & Gelder, M. G. (1976). Imaginal flooding exposure to real phobic situations: Treatment outcome with agoraphobic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 362–371.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.129.4.361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McCarthy, J. (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder in people with learning disability. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7(3), 163–169.  https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.7.3.163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McGuff, R., Gitlin, D., & Enderlin, M. (1996). Clients’ and therapists’ confidence and attendance at planned individual therapy sessions. Psychological Reports, 79(2), 537–538.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1996.79.2.537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McLeod, J. (1990). The client’s experience of counselling and psychotherapy: A review of the research literature. In D. Mearns & W. Dryden (Eds.), Experiences of counselling in action (pp. 66–79). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Miller, W. R., Benefield, R. G., & Tonigan, J. S. (1993). Enhancing motivation for change in problem drinking: A controlled comparison of two therapist styles. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(3), 455–461.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.3.455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  97. Miller, W. R., & Sovereign, R. G. (1989). The check-up: A model for early intervention in addictive behaviors. In T. Løberg, W. R. Miller, P. E. Nathan, & G. A. Marlatt (Eds.), Addictive behaviors: Prevention and early intervention (pp. 219–231). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers.Google Scholar
  98. Miller, W. R., Taylor, C. A., & West, J. C. (1980). Focused versus broad-spectrum behavior therapy for problem drinkers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48(5), 590–601.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.48.5.590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mintz, J., Luborsky, L., & Auerbach, A. H. (1971). Dimensions of psychotherapy: A factor-analytic study of ratings of psychotherapy sessions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36(1), 106–120.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0030481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Murphy, P. M., Cramer, D., & Lillie, F. J. (1984). The relationship between curative factors perceived by patients in their psychotherapy and treatment outcome: An exploratory study. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 57(2), 187–192.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1984.tb01599.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nichols, M. P., & Taylor, T. Y. (1975). Impact of therapist interventions on early sessions of group therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31(4), 726–729. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(197510)31:4<726::AID-JCLP2270310438>3.0.CO;2-SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nissen-Lie, H. A., Monsen, J. T., & Rønnestad, M. H. (2010). Therapist predictors of early patient-rated working alliance: A multilevel approach. Psychotherapy Research, 20(6), 627–646.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2010.497633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Norcross, J. C. (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Norcross, J. C., & Lambert, M. J. (2006). The therapy relationship. In J. C. Norcross, L. E. Beutler, & R. F. Levant (Eds.), Evidence-based practices in mental health: Debate and dialogue on the fundamental questions (pp. 208–218). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Olver, M. E., Stockdale, K. C., & Wormith, J. S. (2011). A meta-analysis of predictors of offender treatment attrition and its relationship to recidivism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 6–21.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Olver, M. E., & Wong, S. C. P. (2013a). A description and research review of the Clearwater Sex Offender Treatment Programme. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19(5-6), 477–492.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2013.758983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Olver, M. E., & Wong, S. C. P. (2013b). Treatment programs for high risk sexual offenders: Program and offender characteristics, attrition, treatment change and recidivism. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(5), 579–591.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2013.06.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Orlinsky, D. E., Grawe, K., & Parks, B. K. (1994). Process and outcome in psychotherapy: Noch einmal. In A. E. Garfield & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (4th ed., pp. 270–376). Oxford, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  109. Orlinsky, D. E., & Howard, K. I. (1986). Process and outcome in psychotherapy. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed., pp. 311–381). New York, NY: Riley.Google Scholar
  110. Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (1985). Therapist behavior as a determinant for client noncompliance: A paradox for the behavior modifier. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(6), 846–851.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.6.846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Piper, W. E., Boroto, D. R., Joyce, A. S., McCallum, M., & Azim, H. F. A. (1995). Pattern of alliance and outcome in short-term individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 32(4), 639–647.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.32.4.639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Polaschek, D. L. L., & Ross, E. C. (2010). Do early therapeutic alliance, motivation, and stages of change predict therapy change for high-risk, psychopathic violent prisoners? Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 20(2), 100–111.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Proeve, M. J., & Howells, K. (2006). Effects of remorse and shame and criminal justice experience on judgements about a sex offender. Psychology, Crime & Law, 12(2), 145–161.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10683160512331316271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rabavilas, A. D., Boulougouris, J. C., & Perissaki, C. (1979). Therapist qualities related to outcome with exposure in vivo in neurotic patients. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 10(4), 293–294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916(79)90005-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rice, M. E., Harris, G. T., & Cormier, C. A. (1992). An evaluation of a maximum security therapeutic community for psychopaths and other mentally disordered offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 16(4), 399–412.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02352266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ringler, M. (1977). The effect of democratic versus authoritarian therapist behavior on success, success-expectation and self-attribution in desensitization of examination anxiety. Zeitchrift fur Klinische Psychologie, 6, 40–58. Retrieved from https://us.hogrefe.com/products/journals/zkp
  117. Rogers, C. R. (1965). The therapeutic relationship: Recent theory and research. Australian Journal of Psychology, 17(2), 95–108.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00049536508255531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ross, E. C., Polaschek, D. L. L., & Ward, T. (2008). The therapeutic alliance: A theoretical revision for offender rehabilitation. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(6), 462–480.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.07.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ross, E. C., Polaschek, D. L. L., & Wilson, M. (2011). Shifting perspectives: A confirmatory factor analysis of the Working Alliance Inventory (short form) with high-risk violent offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(8), 1308–1323.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X11384948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rutherford, K. (1994). Humor in psychotherapy. Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice, 50(2), 207–222.Google Scholar
  121. Ryan, V. L., & Gizynski, M. N. (1971). Behavior therapy in retrospect: Patients’ feelings about their behavior therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37(1), 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0031293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Safran, J. D., & Segal, Z. V. (1990). Cognitive therapy: An interpersonal process perspective. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  123. Salekin, R. T., Worley, C., & Grimes, R. D. (2010). Treatment of psychopathy: A review and brief introduction to the mental model approach for psychopathy. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 28(2), 235–266.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Saunders, S. M. (1999). Clients’ assessments of the effective environment of the psychotherapy session: Relationship to session quality and treatment effectiveness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(5), 597–605. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199905)55:5<597::AID-JCLP7>3.0.CO;2-MCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schaap, C., Bennum, I., Schindler, L., & Hoogduin, K. (1993). The therapeutic relationship in behavioral psychotherapy. Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  126. Schindler, L., Revenstorf, D., Hahlweg, K., & Brengelmann, J. C. (1983). Therapeutenverhalten in der Verhaltenstherapie. Entwicklung eines Instrumentes zur Beurteilung durch den Klienten [The evaluation of therapist qualities in behavior therapy]. Partnerberatung, 20(2-3), 149–160.Google Scholar
  127. Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Why is there so much depression today? The waxing of the individual and the waning of the commons. In R. E. Ingram (Ed.), Contemporary psychological approaches to depression: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 1–9). New York, NY: Plenum Press.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-0649-8_1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sermat, V., & Smyth, M. (1973). Content analysis of verbal communication in the development of relationship: Conditions influencing self-disclosure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26(3), 332–346.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0034473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Seto, M. C., & Barbaree, H. E. (1999). Psychopathy, treatment behavior, and sex offender recidivism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(12), 1235–1248.  https://doi.org/10.1177/088626099014012001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Skeem, J. L., Louden, J. E., Polaschek, D., & Camp, J. (2007). Assessing relationship quality in mandated community treatment: Blending care with control. Psychological Assessment, 19(4), 397–410.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.19.4.397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Strupp, H. H. (1980). Success and failure in time-limited psychotherapy: A systematic comparison of two cases: Comparison 2. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37(6), 595–603.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1980.01780190106013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tangney, J. P., & Dearing, R. L. (2002). Shame and guilt. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tatman, A. W., & Love, K. M. (2010). An offender version of the Working Alliance Inventory-short revised. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 49(3), 165–179.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10509671003666560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Teasdale, J. D., & Fennell, M. J. (1982). Immediate effects on depression of cognitive therapy interventions. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6(3), 343–351.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01173582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Walling, S. M., Suvak, M. K., Howard, J. M., Taft, C. T., & Murphy, C. M. (2012). Race/ethnicity as a predictor of change in working alliance during cognitive behavioral therapy for intimate partner violence perpetrators. Psychotherapy, 49(2), 180–189.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Walton, A., Jeglic, E. L., & Blasko, B. L. (2018). The role of psychopathic traits in the development of the therapeutic alliance among sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 30(3), 211–229.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063216637859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wilson, N. J., & Tamatea, A. (2013). Challenging the “urban myth” of psychopathy untreatability: The high-risk personality programme. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19(5-6), 493–510.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2013.758994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Yalom, I. D., & Lieberman, M. A. (1971). A study of encounter group casualties. Archives of General Psychiatry, 25(1), 16–30.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1971.01750130018002CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brandy Blasko
    • 1
  • Geris Serran
    • 2
  • Jeff Abracen
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Advancing Correctional ExcellenceGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  2. 2.Warkworth Institution, Correctional Service CanadaWarkworthCanada
  3. 3.Keele Center, Correctional Service CanadaTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations